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Sleep DisordersPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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What are the diagnostic characteristics of primary hypersomnia?
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Excessive sleepiness for at least a month, sleepiness on almost a daily basis, without a diagnosis of narcoplepsy or obstructive sleep apnea.
What test is used to diagnose a primary hypersomnia?
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The Multiple Sleep Latency test which measures sleep variables for a 20 minute period every 2 hours for 5 times.
How can a person's physiologic sleep tendency be determined?
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The faster they fall asleep during a multiple sleep latency test, the stronger the drive.
What condition is associated with cataplexy, a sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone preceded by an intense emotion?
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Narcolepsy
What condition is associated with hypnagogic hallucinations, dream like hallucinations when falling asleep?
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Narcolepsy
When does a nightmare disorder typically occur during sleep?
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During the second half of the sleep period
When does a sleep terror disorder typically occur during sleep?
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During the first third of the sleep period
What medications are typically used to treat Hypersomnia?
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Dexedrine/dextroamphetamine, methylphenidate/Ritalin or Concerta, and pemoline/Cylert.
What medication has been used off-label to treat hypersomnias?
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Methysergide, a serotonin antagonist
How long do sleep episodes of narcolepsy typically last?
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5-20 minutes, with 2-6 attacks a day
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At what age does narcoplepsy usually begin?
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Between the ages of 15-35
What is the first symptom of narcolepsy?
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Excessive sleepiness
What is the narcolepsy tetrad?
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Daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis.
The bilateral loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotion that ranges from subtle (drooping eyelids) to dramatic (buckling needs) while a person is fully awake and aler is referred to as ______.
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Cataplexy
What muscles are never impacted by cataplexy?
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Eye and respiratory muscles
Intense, dreamlike images or sounds that occur when an individual is falling asleep and usually involve the immediate environment are referred to as _________ hallucinations.
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Hypnagogic
The inability to move or speak when falling asleep or waking up is referred to as ________.
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Sleep paralysis
The cause of narcolepsy involves a deficiency in _________, a hypothalamic peptide.
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Hypocretin
What class of medications are used to cataplexy?
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Tricyclic antidepressants or Gamma-hydroxybutyrate
What are common physical complaints of people with obstructive sleep apnea?
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GERD, nocturia, nocturnal enuresis, reflex bradycardia from a tachycardic episode, cardiac dysrhythmias and obesity
What is the most common site of airway obstruction with obstructive sleep apnea?
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The supraglottic airway in the pharyngeal area
  
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