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Childhood Psychiatric DisordersPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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Why is assessing for lethality difficult in children?
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Children have a lack of understanding of lethality, may be trying parasuicide and be too successful, distorted understanding of death, an immature way of looking at the world and their role in it and depression presents differently in children than adults
What neurological abnormalities have been found in children with autism?
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The ventricles are enlarged and there's abnormalities in the temporal lobes.
How does the low plasma serotonin levels in children with ADHD manifest?
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As impulsivity and a lack of inhibition
How does the low plasma norepinephrine levels in children with ADHD manifest?
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Decreased ability to analyze situtions and reason through problems
How does the low plasma dopamine levels in children with ADHD manifest?
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Difficulties in filtering sensory information, maintaining concentration, creating memories and controlling emotions.
What behaviors in children with ADHD are associated with structural changes in the prefrontal cortex of the brain?
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Problems with judgment, attention span, organization, and inhibition of behaviors
What behaviors in children with ADHD are associated with structural changes in the basal ganglia of the brain?
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Impulsivity, hyperactivity, increased disinhibition
What behaviors in children with ADHD are associated with structural changes in the hippocampus of the brain?
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Difficulties concentrating, developing memories
What behaviors in children with ADHD are associated with structural changes in the limbic system of the brain?
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Difficulties with emotional regulation
What medication is typically the first line treatment of ADHD?
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Methylphenidate
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What medication is prescribed for children with ADHD who don't respond to stimulants or develop tics from them?
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Atomoxetine
How do methylphenidate medications like Concerta, Strattera, Ritalin and Metadate work for children with ADHD?
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They block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine.
How do D-L amphetamine compounds like Adderall work for children with ADHD?
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It stimulates the release of norepinephrine
_________ disorder is characterized by a persisten pattern of disobedience, argumentativeness, angry outbursts, low tolerance of frustration, and tendency to blame others for own problems.
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Oppositional defiant disorder
_______ disorder is characterized by serious violations of social norms including aggression, destruction of property and cruelty to animals.
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Conduct disorder
What medications have been used to treat children with ODD and CD to treat extremely aggressive behavior?
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Haloperidol, thiorodazine, carbamazepine and risperidone.
__________ therapy conceptualizes conduct problems as the result of deficiencies in cognition which results in misinterpretation of the intentions of others (like hostility when there is none).
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Problem-solving therapy
_______ disorder is characterized by the expression of worry about harm or permanent loss of a major attachment figure. Symptoms include distress and nightmares that last at least a month.
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Separation Anxiety Disorder
A child who refuses to attend school, preferring to stay home with a primary attachment figure is said to have __________.
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School phobia
What is the first line treatment for separation anxiety in children?
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SSRIs
What brain abnormalities are implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive disoder?
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Disorder of the basal ganglia, and functional abnormalities between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia structures like the caudate nucleus.
  
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