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Childhood Psychiatric DisordersPsychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice

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What brain abnormalities are implicated in Obsessive-Compulsive disoder?
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Disorder of the basal ganglia, and functional abnormalities between the frontal cortex and basal ganglia structures like the caudate nucleus.
Children who develop conduct disorder before age 10 tend to have better or worse prognosis than those who develop it after age 10?
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Before age 10, the child is more likely to develop anti-social personality disorder as an adult, therefore they have a worse prognosis.
What biochemical changes have been found in children with conduct disorder?
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Low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, and high levels of testosterone
What biochemical abnormalities contribute to the development of Tourette's?
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Abnormal levels of dopamine, serotonin, GABA, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine.
Which gender is most likely to be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder?
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Females
Which type of tics are usually the first to develop with Tourette's disorder?
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Motor tics typically precede phonic tics
How long must a child experience motor and phonic tics before an official diagnosis of Tourette's can be made?
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One year
What medications have been used to treat tics associated with Tourette's?
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Haloperidol, pimozide, ziprasidone, risperidone (dopamine blockers/antipsychotics), clonidine/Catapres, guanfacine/Tenex (a2 receptor agonist that regulates the norepinephrine system).
What are common problems also experienced by children with Tourette's?
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ADHD, OCD, problems with organization, planning, sometimes reading and handwriting problems.
What medications are used to treat enuresis?
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Trofranil/imipramine and nasal desmopressin/DDAVP.
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What is the most common cause/form of encopresis?
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A fecal impaction
How is encopresis typically treated?
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Bowel catharsis followed by administration of mineral oil, high fiber diet, and a bowel training program that involves sitting on the toilet for 10 minutes after each meal.
  
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