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Newborn and Infant DevelopmentMaternity and Pediatric Nursing

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How is an infant's cardiovascular status impacted if they are born premature?
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The heart has to work harder
What gastric enzymes are deficient at birth? At what age do they reach adult levels?
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Trypsin, amylase and lipase. They reach adult levels at 5 months.
What is the most immature part of the GI tract at birth?
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The liver, it is able to conjugate bilirubin and secrete bile around 2 weeks of age, however, medication conjugation may be immature until around a year old.
Why is it important to monitor for diarrhea in an infant?
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Diarrhea quickly leads to dehydration
Why is it important to monitor for constipation in an infant?
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Constipation can be a sign of a bowel obstruction which can lead to short gut syndrome
________ infants typically have yellow, seedy stool.
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Breastfed
________ infants typically have stool resembling peanut butter.
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Formula fed
What are the characteristics of an infant's stool that would be a cause for concern?
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A stool that is hard and dry warrants further investigation
What GI problem are premature infants especially at risk for?
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Bowel obstructions which can lead to short gut syndrome
At what age does an infant's glomeruli reach full maturity?
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Around the age of 2 years old
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What are the basic characteristics of an infant's renal system?
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It is very immature, so dehydration is a constant concern, the baby's urine will have a low specific gravity and the glomeruli don't reach full maturity until age 2.
What is the function of vernix caseosa?
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It protects the infant's developing skin and is usually found in the folds of the skin, axilla and groin areas
_______ is the term for the fine, downy hair that covers the body of many newborns.
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Lanugo
________ is the term for the normal blueness of an infant's hands and feet, which usually decreases over the first few days of life.
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Acrocyanosis
________ is the term for the normal pink and white marbled appearnce of an infant's skin.
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Mottling
What is the underlying cause of mottling of a newborn's skin?
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The infant's circulatory system is immature
What can potentially cause increased absorption of topical medications used on infants?
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An infant's skin is thin and the peripheral capillaries are close to the surface
When are maternal iron stores transferred to the fetus?
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During the last trimester of pregnancy
When does fetal HgB (HgbF) cease production?
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At birth
At what age is an infant at risk for anemia?
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Around 2-3 months old
What are the factors that contribute to the development of anemia in infants?
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Prior to birth, the infant produces fetal HGB (HgbF). At birth, the infant begins producing HgbA. HgbF has a shorter life than HgbA, so there's a period where one is dying out while the other is still working towards reaching the appropriate level. This is when anemia occurs.
  
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