Campus Collusion
Review Questions for Test Preparation

       
    

  



Lecture 1

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What is the Golgi complex/ Golgi apparatus?
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Cellular component that modifies substances sythesized by ribosomes, and packages them into secretory granules/vesicles for release into extracellular fluid.
What is I-Cell disease?
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A lysosomal storage disease. Enzymes belonging to lysosomes released into blood causing damage to substances in the blood.
Which lysosomal storage disease is the result of a pathologic change to lysosomes?
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Tay-Sachs disease
I-Cell disease results from a pathologic change of what cellular component?
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Golgi apparatus/ Golgi Complex
What are the functions of the cell membrane/plasma membrane? (6)
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-keeps cell together -protective barrier against foreign organisms, toxic molecules -contains protiens that assist in the transport of substances in/out of cell through membrane -contains receptors for hormones and other biologically active substances -contains antigens that label cells as self or nonself mantians/tranmits membrane potentials (nerve and muscle cells
Pathologic changes to the antigens on the cell membrane result in what nursing problem?
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Autoimmune diseases
Why would problems with the cell membrane result in cell death.
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Cell would be unable to be kept together
What are the two pathways for energy production?
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Aerobic (oxygen) and Anerobic (w/out oxygen)
Where does aerobic energy production occur?
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Mitochondria
What is required by the mitochondria to produce energy?
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O2, fuel, and the correct enzymes
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Explain cell metabolism
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Cells use oxygen and the food we eat to produce the energy needed to function. Energy is stored in form of ATP. When the cell needs energy , it breaks down ATP and energy is released.
What form is energy stored in the cell?
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ATP
Where does anaerobic energy production take place?
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Cytoplasm
Less efficient than aerobic metabolism but important dureing periods of decreased oxygen delivery.
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Anaerobic
What nursing problems result from respiratory arrest?
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Cells shift to anaerobic energy production which results in the production of lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid changes the PH resulting in acidosis.
What are predisposing/causitive factors that cause pathologic changes to cell metabolism?
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-decreased oxygen to the cell -decreased food/fuel -alterations in metabolic enzyme availability/function.
Explain hypernatremia.
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Results from a pahtologic change in movement across cell membrane. Excess sodium in the blood causes H2O to leave cells. Cells shrink.
Two types of passive movement.
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Diffusion Osmosis
No expenditure of energy required, occurs r/t cheical or electrical gradients.
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Passive movement
Process by which substances move from areas of greater to lesser concentration in attempt to readh a uniform concentration.
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diffusion
What is osmosis?
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Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane along a concentration gradient; water moves until concentration of solute particles equal on both sides.
  
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