Campus Collusion
Review Questions for Test Preparation

       
    

  



Lecture 1

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What is osmosis?
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Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane along a concentration gradient; water moves until concentration of solute particles equal on both sides.
What type of passive movement occurs when the cell membrane is permeable to the substance?
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Diffusion
Is the cell membrane permeable to the "substance" during osmosis?
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No.
Why is the movement of molecules/ions across cell membrane important?
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It is required to maintain functions of the cell.
Is the cell membrane more permeable to K+ or Na+?
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Potassium
Give an example of active transport.
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Sodium Potassium Pump
Explain the purpose of active transport?
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It is necessary when substances need to move against the concentration gradient. (energy required)
Cell drinking
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pinocytosis
cell eating
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phagocytosis
Cell engulfs material, forms vesicle, and takes material into the cell.
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Endocytosis
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What is exocytosis?
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Reverse of endocytosis; secretory granule fuses to cell membrane and opens to outside of cell. Mechanism for releasing hormones made in cell, getting rid of cellular debris, etc.
Define pinocytosis.
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a form of endocytosis that involves fluid and dissolved particles.
Define phagocytosis and give an example of a cell that performs this function.
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A form of endocytosis involving microorganisms, damaged cells, and other prticles that are then killed/degraded. A neutrophil.
Name two ways that cellular communication takes place.
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-through chemical messengers - through gap junctions
What types of cells utilize gap junctions for cellular communication?
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Muscle and nerve cells
Explain how "chemical messengers" work.
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Chemical messengers (ex. hormones) interact with receptor proteins of other cells triggering the desired physiologic effect.
Explain how communication takes place in nerve and muscle cells.
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Through gap junctions,channels that allow small ions/molecules to pass directly from cell to cell, permitting action potentials (electric signals) to spread reapidly throughout the cells in a particular area.
What is resting membrane potential?
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All body cells are electrically polarized; at rest, the inside of the cell is more negatively charged than outside. Changes in this polarization have the potential to convey messages from cell to cell which triggers certain cell activities (ex. muscle contraction, conduction of nerve impulses).
Explain depolarization.
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An initial stimulus causes cell membrane to become more permeable to sodium . Sodium moves into the cell (r/t concentration gradient) which causes depolarization (inside of cell is no longer more positively charged than outside). Current carrying ions pass through gap junctions to other cells. impulse is conducted throuout muscle/nerve cell.
What happens during repolarization?
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The inside of the cell becomes more negatively charged again (after an action potential). Cell membrane returs to the original state of permeability- increased permeability to potassium and decreased permeability to sodium. Sodium/Potassium pump then restores the membrane to resting potential by pumping sodium out and potassium back in. Cell is then ready to receive another action potential.
What are some predisposing or causitive factors that could interfere with cellular communication?
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-electrolyte imbalance -hypoxia or impaired metabolism - autoimmune disease -congenital defect -genetic predisposition -degeneration r/t age or exposure to toxins
  
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