Campus Collusion
Review Questions for Test Preparation

       
    

  



Lecture 1

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What are some predisposing or causitive factors that could interfere with cellular communication?
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-electrolyte imbalance -hypoxia or impaired metabolism - autoimmune disease -congenital defect -genetic predisposition -degeneration r/t age or exposure to toxins
What are some predisposing factors that would cause changes in membrane permeability
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-electrolyte imbalances -hypoxia or impaired metabolism (cell would not have enough energy for active transport/ or to maintain resting potential.
Explain Parkinson's disease.
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To little dopamine is released in a certain part of the brain.
Parkinson's disease is a result of intereference of what type of cellular communication.
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Chemical messenger
With schizophrenia, is too much or too little dopamine released into the brain?
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Too much.
What action would you want to see from medications given to a patient with Parkinson's disease?
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Medications that would increase the release of dopamine.
Explain the pathologic change that would occur in a patient with myasthenia gravis?
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Receptor sites missing or damaged.
What happens to a pt. w/ myastenia gravis?
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Progressive weakness of voluntary muscles.
Is myasthenia gravis caused by degeneration r/t age or exposure to toxins?
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No, it is r/t an autoimmune attack on acetylcholine receptors.
What are the three cellular responses to pathological changes?
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1. Adaptive response 2. reversible injury 3. cell death/ necrosis
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Explain reversible injury.
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If the irritant or inflammation is removed, then the cell may heal itself.
If cell injury is irreversible and cell death occurs, what is the response?
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A. If the type (ie. skin/liver), the cell would be replaced if able. B. Scar- repairs structure but not function (ie. heart muscle damage).
List the five adaptive cellular responses to patholgical changes.
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1. Atrophy 2. Hypertrophy 3. Hyperplasia 4. Metaplasia 5. Dysplasia
An increase in cell size (and functional components) that allows a cell to meet increased work demands is what adaptive response?
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Hypertrophy
When work demands and size increase in hypertrophy what will the cell require more of?
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More O2 and nutrients.
Give three examples of hypertropy.
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1. Weightlifting 2. preganancy 3. L. ventricle hypertrophy
Explain atrophy.
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Cell reverts to a smaller size and lower level of functioning which decreases the O2 and energy needs, making the cell more compatible with survival.
Does an atrophied cell have the same ability to function?
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No, the cell has less ability to function and less energy requirements.
What do antioxidants do?
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Fight damage from free radicals.
Explain hyperplasia.
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Increase in the number of cells (only in tissues with cells capable of division). May increase the risk for cancer.
When cells change from one cell type to another that is better able to survive under adverse circumstances. This is usually triggered by chronic inflammation.
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Metaplasia
  
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