Campus Collusion
Review Questions for Test Preparation

       
    

  



Lecture 1

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When cells change from one cell type to another that is better able to survive under adverse circumstances. This is usually triggered by chronic inflammation.
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Metaplasia
Explain dysplasia.
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Deranged cell growth that results in cells that vary in size, shape and appearance; usually r/t to chronic irritation/inflammation.
What happens when a cell switches to anaerobic metabolism as a result of a "power failure"?
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Lactic acid is a byproduct and decreases the PH of the blood causing an acidic environment which leads to damage to cell membranes and leakage of intracellular enzymes out of cell.
What occurs if there is damage to the lysosomal membranes?
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lysosomal enzymes leak into the cytoplasm causing self digestion.
Failure of energy dependent transport mechanisms would lead to...
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Increased membrane permeability -loss of proteins, RNA, etc. -increase of calcium into cell which would cause abnormal activation of many enzymes further causing cell damage.
Please Note:
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Calcium activates various enzyme systems with the cell.
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What is required for Active Transport?
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Energy
When is Active Transport necessary?
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When substances need to move against the concentration gradient
Exocytosis
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secretory granule fuses to cell membrane and opens to outside of cell. Mechanism for releasing hormones made in cell, getting rid of cellular debris, etc.
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What is hypernatremia and what happens on a cellular level?
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Excess sodium in the blood. H2O leaves the cells and the cells shrink.
Name 2 methods of cellular communication.
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Chemical messengers and Gap junctions
What does a scar do?
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Repairs structure but not function.
  
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