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PED'sWong's Essentials of Pediatric Nursing 8th Ed.

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Which of the following has had the greatest impact on reducing infant mortality in the United States? A. Improvements in perinatal care B. Decreased incidence of congenital abnormalities C. Better maternal nutrition D. Improved funding for health care
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A. Improvements in perinatal care, particularly respiratory care and care of mother-baby dyad before delivery, have had the greatest impact.
According to Piaget, at what stage of development do children typically solve problems through trial and error? A. Sensorimotor B. Preoperational C. Formal operational D. Concrete operational
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A. During sensorimotor stage infants and young toddlers develop a sense of cause and effect.
Which of the following characteristics best describes the fine motor skills of a 5-month-old infant? A. Transfers objects from one hand to another B. Crude pincer grasp C. Able to build a tower of two cubes D. Able to grasp object voluntarily
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D. This is an appropriate fine motor skill for a 5 month old infant. A is for a 7 month old. B for 8 to 9 months. C for 15 months.
The nurse is assessing a 6-month-old infant who smiles, coos, and has strong head lag. The nurse should recognize which of the following? A. This is normal development for a 6-month-old. B. The child is probably mentally retarded. C. A developmental and neurologic evaluation is needed. D. The parent needs to work with the infant to stop the head lag.
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C. The head lag should be almost gone by 4 months of age. This child requires further evaluation to determine whether there is a developmental or neuromuscular deficit that needs to be addressed.
According to Erikson, infancy is concerned with acquiring a sense of which of the following? A. Trust B. Industry C. Initiative D. Separation
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A. The task of infancy is the development of trust. If the infant is not successful, then mistrust develops.
A parent of a 10-month-old infant tells the nurse that the baby cries and screams whenever the infant is left with the grandparents. The nurse's reply should be based on which of the following? A. The infant is most likely spoiled. B. Stranger anxiety is common for an infant of this age. C. Separation anxiety should have disappeared between 4 and 8 months of age. D. The grandparents are not responsive to infant.
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B. The infant is experiencing stranger anxiety, which is expected for this age infant, usually developing between 6 and 8 months of age and beginning to disappear at about 1 year of age.
At what age would the nurse expect an infant to be able to say "mama" and "dada" with meaning? A. 4 months B. 6 months C. 10 months D. 14 months
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3. At 10 months of age, infants say sounds with meaning.
The parents of a 9-month-old infant tell the nurse that they are worried about their baby's thumb-sucking. The nurse's reply should be based on which of the following? A. A pacifier should be substituted for the thumb. B. Thumb-sucking should be discouraged by age 12 months. C. Thumb-sucking should be discouraged when the first teeth begin to erupt. D. There is no need to restrain nonnutritive sucking during infancy.
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D. Nonnutritive sucking reaches its peak at about 18 to 20 months of age. Most toddlers give up nonnutritive sucking on their own.
Which of the following is the most appropriate recommendation for relief of teething pain? A. Rub gums with aspirin to relieve inflammation. B. Apply hydrogen peroxide to gums to relieve irritation. C. Give child a frozen teething ring to relieve inflammation. D. Have child chew on a warm teething ring to encourage tooth eruption.
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C. Cold reduces inflammation and should be used for the relief of teething irritation.
The mother of a 3-month-old breast-fed infant asks about giving her baby water, since it is summer and very warm. The nurse should recommend that: A. Fluids in addition to breast milk are not needed. B. Water should be given if the infant seems to nurse longer than usual. C. Water once or twice a day will make up for losses due to environmental temperature. D. Clear juices would be better than water to promote adequate fluid intake.
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A. The child will nurse according to needs. Additional fluids are not necessary for the breast-fed baby.
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The parent of a 12-month-old says to the nurse, "He pushes the teaspoon right out of my hand when I feed him. I can't let him feed himself; he makes too much mess." The nurse's best response is which of the following? A. "It's important not to give in to this kind of temper tantrum at this age." B. "Maybe you need to try a different type of spoon, one designed for children." C. "It's important to let him make a mess. Just don't worry about it so much." D. "He is at the age when he should begin to feed himself. Let's think of ways to make the mess more tolerable."
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D. At 12 months children should be self-feeding. Since they eat primarily finger foods, providing some concrete strategies to the parent as to how to minimize the mess would be helpful.
The parents of a 5-month-old girl complain to the nurse that they are exhausted because she still wakes up as often as every 1 to 2 hours during the night. When she awakens, they change her diaper and her mother nurses her back to sleep. Which of the following should the nurse suggest to help them deal with this problem? A. Put her in parents' bed to cuddle. B. Start putting her to bed while still awake. C. Allow the infant to cry for 30 minutes, then rock the infant back to sleep before putting her back in the crib. D. Give her a bottle of formula instead of breastfeeding her so often at night.
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B. Parents need to develop bedtime rituals that involve putting the child in bed when awake. This will allow the infant to become accustomed to falling asleep somewhere besides the parents arms or in the parents presence.
A 4-month-old infant is brought to the clinic by his parents for a well-baby checkup. Which of the following instructions should the nurse include at this time about injury prevention? A. Never shake baby powder directly on him because it can be aspirated into his lungs. B. Do not permit him to chew paint from window ledges, since he might absorb too much lead. C. When he learns to roll over, you must supervise him whenever he is on a surface from which he might fall.; D. Keep doors of appliances closed at all times.
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C. Rolling over from the abdomen to the back occurs between 4 and 7 months of age. This is the appropriate anticipatory guidance for this age related to the prevention of injuries.
Which of the following infants are at risk for developing vitamin D-deficient rickets? A. Lacto-ovovegetarians B. Those who are breastfed exclusively C. Those using yogurt as primary source of milk D. Those exposed to daily sunlight
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C. Yogurt may not be supplemented with vitamin D; thus the infant may be at risk for the development of rickets.
Macrominerals refer to those minerals with daily intake requirements greater than 100 mg. Which of the following is a macromineral? A. Iron B. Calcium C. Fluoride D. Vitamin D
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B. Calcium is a macromineral.
Which of the following food combinations will generally provide the appropriate amounts of essential amino acids for an individual who is vegetarian? A. Grains and legumes B. Grains and vegetables C. Legumes and vegetables D. Milk products and fruit
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A. Grains and legumes from complete proteins when eaten together, thus providing appropriate amounts of essential amino acids.
Which of the following is most descriptive of kwashiorkor? A. This alteration has a multifactorial etiology. B. This alteration occurs primarily in breast-fed infants. C. This alteration results from excessive amounts of vitamin K. D. This alteration is related to inadequate calories, but adequate protein.
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A. Cultural, environmental, and infectious components contribute to kwashiorkor, a deficiency of protein with an adequate supply of calories.
A 3-month-old bottle-fed infant is allergic to cow's milk. Which of the following is the best substitute to teach the parents to use? A. Goat's milk B. Soy-based formula C. Skim milk diluted with water D. Casein hydrolysate milk formula
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D. The milk protein is broken down in these formulas, thus making it a safe alternative for the infant who has an allergy to cow's milk.
Which of the following statements best describes colic to parents who are inquiring as to whether their infant is experiencing this alteration? A. The infant will experience periods of abdominal pain, which result in weight loss. B. Periods of abdominal pain and crying occur in infants primarily over age 6 months. C. Colic manifests as paroxysmal abdominal pain or cramping manifested by episodes of loud crying. D. Colic is usually the result of poor or inadequate mothering.
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C. Colic, or paroxysmal abdominal pain, occurs primarily in infants under the age of 3 months and is manifested by episodes of excessive crying and the infant drawing the legs up towards the abdomen.
Which of the following interventions lowers the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)? A. Keeping the window open if smoking near the infant B. Placing the infant in the supine position for sleeping C. Letting the infant sleep with the parents instead of alone in crib D. Making certain infant is kept very warm while sleeping
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B. The Back to Sleep Campaign is credited with reducing the rate of SIDS in the United States.
  
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