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Lecture 2

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Cell division resulting in 23 chromosomes is called:
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meiosis
What is proliferation?
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The number of cells actively dividing equals the number dying.
Explain the phases of the cell cycle.
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G1 preparing to divide S DNA synthesis occurs (2 sets of chromosomes made one set for each daughter cell) G2 continued protein and RNA synthesis M cell division/ mitosis occurs G0 resting phase
What is mitosis?
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reproduction/division of somatic cells capable of reproducing. 1 cell becomes 2 daughter cells(each with 23 pairs of chromosomes)
Meiosis is ...
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reproduction of germ cells. Results in formation of gametes (ovum and sperm) each with only 23 chromosomes
What factors regulate mitosis?
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Genetic programming -prime factor Contact inhibition/cell density-dependent inhibition Growth factors, nutrients, tissue injury, etc.
What happens when you have abnormal proliferation and abnormal differentiation?
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Cancer
Define abnormal differnetiation.
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Bad function
Define Abnormal proliferation.
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More cells growing than dying.
What is differentiation?
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cells develop specialized structures/functions
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What factors regulate differentiation?
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Genetic programming- prime factor Growth factors, nutrients, etc.
Abnormal proliferation only + normal differentiation, results in?
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benign neoplasms
What are some predisposing or causitive factors associated with the pathological changes that result in cancer?
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Exposure to carcinogens (drugs, radiation, cigarette smoke, etc.) Cancer causing viruses (HPV, EBV, HBV, etc.) Immunologic defects Heredity (mutated gene maybe inheridted in germ cell line)
What are highly differentiated cell types and what are some examples?
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Limite ability to divide/reproduce. Brain and nerve cells.
What are highly differentiated cell types and what are some examples?
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Limite ability to divide/reproduce. Brain and nerve cells.
Explain parent/progenitor cells and give an example.
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These cells are able to reproduce, but usually limited to a single cell type. Skin, Liver
What are undifferentiated stem cells?
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These cells can be triggered to produce progentor cells when needed; some types produce more than 1 type of cell. Examples are bone marrow blood cells : RBC, WBC
What is cachexia?
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Wasting
Name 7 nursing problems associated with cancer
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1. uncontrolled cell growth 2. infiltration into surrounding tissues 3. tissue/organ disfunction 4. changes in cell characteristics 5. abnormal biochemical products (VEGF) 6. abnormal antigens 7. generalized effects
What are the physical characteristics associated with a benign neoplasm?
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Encapsulated, no infiltration/metastisis, usually no tissue damage, doesn't usually cause death unless interferes with vital functions.
  
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