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Pediatric Cardiovascular System

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Question Answer
Which heart defect doesn't result in abnormal growth of the child?
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Pulmonary Stenosis
Significant cyanosis without a murmur in an infant is highly indicative of what congenital heart defect?
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Transposition of the Great Arteries (aorta connected to the right ventricle, pulmonary artery connected to the left)
________ is a rare congenital heart defect in which the pulmonary veins don't connect normally to the left atrium, instead they connect to the right atrium, usually via the SVC.
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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection (TAPVC)
What is the most common cause of acquired heart defects?
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Kawasaki's Disease
How long should a child with acute rheumatic fever be on bed rest?
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Until the fever is resolved, beyond that, they can begin to resume moderate activity
What is the biggest concern with Kawasaki's disease?
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As the symptoms start to resolve in the subacute phase, the coronary vessels change and become more prone to aneurysms. This increases the risk for MIs throughout life and requires regular EKGs to monitor.
Tachypnea is a sign of congestive heart failure. Which side of the heart is failing?
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The left
Decreased urine output is a sign of which side of the heart failing?
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Left
Periorbital edema is a sign that which side of the heart is failing?
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Right
Feeding times should be limited to a duration of ______ for infants with a cardiac disorder to allow enough time to eat, but also prevent exhaustion.
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30 minutes
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For a child with heart failure, what activities should be limited or avoided due to their effect of increasing O2 consumption? (4)
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Crying, too high/low body temperature, long feeding periods, exposure to cold
What are physiological changes related to hypoxemia?
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Polycythemia, clubbing, cyanosis, poor feeding, fatigue, poor weight gain, tachypnea, dyspnea, possible neurological problems.
Why can hypoxemia increase the risk of strokes?
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Polycythemia develops, increasing blood viscosity and resulting in poor perfusion and increased stroke risk
How is bacterial endocarditis diagnosed?
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ECG changes (prolonged P-R interval), elevated ESR rate, elevated C-Reactive Protein, blood cultures, echocardiogram
How is Kawasaki's Disease diagnosed?
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There is no diagnostic test, it is dx by the cluster of symptoms
How is acute rheumatic fever diagnosed?
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Use of the Jones criteria, essentially: is carditis present? Is arthritis present? Is chorea present?Is erythema marginatum present? Are there subQ nodes? Fever? Elevated sed rate? Elevated C-reactive protein?
  
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