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Pediatric Cardiovascular System

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________ after a cardiac catheterization may indicate hemorrhage due to perforation of the heart muscle or bleeding from the insertion site.
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Hypotension
You are assessing a child's distal extremities post cardiac catheterization and note blanching and pallor. You suspect, based on the assessment the child has ________.
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An obstruction in bloodflow
What position is a child placed in post cardiac catheterization?
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They are placed in a position that makes it possible to keep the extremity with the insertion site straight for at least 4-8 hours to promote healing.
_________ is defined as a structural abnormality from embryonic development of a normal structure, essentially something formed incorrectly or a failure of a structure to progress beyond an early stage of embryonic development (foramen doesn’t close, septum doesn’t divide, etc.).
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Congenital heart defect (CHD)
The most common type of congenital heart defect is ________.
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Ventricular septal defect
About 1/4th of children with a congenital heart defect also have another recognized anomaly like...
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Trisomy 21 (Downs) or trisomy 13
What is the cause of congenital heart defects?
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May be related to genetic or environmental factors, however the majority are of unknown etiology
What is the cause of congenital heart defects?
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May be related to genetic or environmental factors, however the majority are of unknown etiology
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In normal blood flow of the heart, blood flows from an area of ______pressure to an area of ______ pressure. So, normally the pressure on the ____side of the heart is lower than the ______ side, the resistance to pulmonary circulation is ______ than the resistance to systemic circulation.
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Blood flows from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure and takes the path of least resistance Normally the pressure on the right side of the heart is lower than the left side, the resistance to pulmonary circulation is less than the resistance to systemic circulation
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What are the two methods of categorization of congenital heart defects?
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Acyanotic vs. Cyanotic, or blood flow patterns/hemodynamics (more accurate but less used)
What is the underlying pathology in acyanotic congenital heart defects?
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More blood flow is going to the lungs from abnormal connections between two sides of heart-either in the septum or the great vessels (pulmonary artery/aorta like ductus arteriosus), or an obstruction is redirecting blood flow.
In acyanotic congenital heart defects, blood flow in the heart is from ______ to ________, which increases blood volume on the _______ side of the heart.
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Blood flows from left to right, increasing blood volume on the right side of the heart.
In acyanotic congenital heart conditions, where is the increased blood flow ultimately going?
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To the lungs, hence the lack of cyanosis.
In acyanotic congenital heart conditions, there is ________ systemic blood flow and ________ pulmonary blood flow. (Increased or decreased)
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Decreased systemic blood flow, increased pulmonary blood flow
What are the acyanotic congenital heart defects?
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Atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrioventricular canal (AV Canal), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), Coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis (AS), and pulmonary stenosis (PS).
Cyanotic congenital heart defects are characterized by blood flow from the ______ side of the heart to the _______ side of the heart.
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Right side to the left side
In a heart condition caused by stenosis, the pressure in the area distal to the obstruction is ______, and the pressure before the obstruction is _______.
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In a heart condition caused by stenosis, the pressure in the area distal to the obstruction is low, and the pressure before the obstruction is high.
What type of acyanotic heart condition is coarctation of the aorta, an abnormal connection in the heart or one of obstructed blood flow?
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Obstructed blood flow
What is the underlying pathology of cyanotic congenital heart defects?
Show Answer
A structural defect leads to obstruction of the pulmonary blood flow. This increases pressure on the right side of heart, causing blood to flow right to left and pushes desaturated/deoxygenated blood out to the systemic circulation.
In a cyanotic heart defect, a structural defect leads to obstruction of the pulmonary blood flow. This _____ pressure on the right side of heart, causing blood to flow ______ to _______.
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Increases pressure on the right side of heart, causing blood to flow right to left
  
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