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Lecture 10 &11 Renal

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The kidneys function in two ways: ________________function & _________________function.
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Excretory Endocrine
The excretory function of the kidneys is responsible for:
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excreting substances that are not needed to maintain normal body fluid composition or that are in excess: metabolic wastes fluid electrolytes helps to maintain acid/base balance
Renin, erythropoietin,and involvement w/liver to activate Vit. D are all responsibilities of the ___________ function of the kidneys.
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Endocrine
Nephron
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Functional unit of the kidney.
Glomerulus:
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capillary bed from which fluid and substances are filtered to form urine filtrate (that collects in Bowman's capsule). content of the filtrate is determined by the integrity of the glomerular basement membrane. filters blood
System of tubules in the kidneys function to:
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selectively reabsorb or secretes substances in the urine.
Outer cortex:
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contains glomeruli and portions of tubules
Inner medulla:
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Mostly the tubular portions of nephrons
Renal calyces and pelvis:
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Collect the urine that empties from tubules and funnel it to ureters
Afferent arteriole:
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receives blood from branches of reanl artery, supplies blood to glomerulus.
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Efferent arteriole :
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Along with the afferent arteriole, selectively constricts/dilates to regulate blood flow/pressure withing glomerulus, which , along with arterial BP determines normal GFR.
Normal GFR:
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125 ml flitrate formed per minute. This is the amount of fluid being pushed from the glomerulus.
When the afferent constricts and the efferent __________, pressure decreases so GFR decreases. If the opposite occurs and the Afferent ___________ and the efferent constricts, pressure is increased and GFR is increased.
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Dilates
Proxymal convoluted tubule is responsible for :
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Reabsorbing nutritionally important substances. Glucose Electrolytes H2O This is the main place where sodium is reabsorbed.
1ml of ____________ is formed from the GFR of 125ml/minute, this results in formation of ____________ at a rate of 30-60ml/hr.
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Urine
The descending limb of the loop of henley is permeable to __________&___________. The ascending limb is permeable to ________.
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descending - water and solutes ascending - solutes only
Diuretics block __________absorption which results in the loss of water.
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sodium
Why can the use of a foley catheter be important in determining proper function of the kidneys?
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Measures hourly output of urine.
Stenosis/occlusion of the renal artery can cause what nursing problem?
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Decrease of urine output.
Loss of antibodies (decreasing immunity), loss of RBC's (anemia), and loss of albumin (resulting in edema)in the urine is evidence of what pathological change?
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Altered permeability of basement membrane, allowing "big stuff" to escape.
  
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