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Constructing HypothesesFoundations of Nursing Research

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The higher a child's self esteem is, the higher their body image will be... is an example of a _________ hypothesis.
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Directional research hypothesis
A ________ hypothesis predicts no relationship between two or more variables.
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Null
Which type of hypothesis is the most commonly used in nursing research?
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A directional research hypothesis
What types of studies require a hypothesis?
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Experimental, comparative and correlational.
What types of studies may or may not have a hypothesis?
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Qualitative or descriptive studies
How are studies with no research hypothesis guided?
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By research questions that are further elaborations of the original problem statement.
Why is it important to define study variables and research terms?
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So their meaning is clear to the researcher and the people reviewing the research.
How are variables usually defined?
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Utilizing dictionary definitions, theoretical definitions or operational definitions.
What is an operational definition of a variable?
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It indicates how a variable will be observed or measured. For example, using an MMPI to measure mental stability of research participants would be an operational variable.
What does use of an operational definition of a variable allow for?
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The replication of the study using the same tools
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Aside from variables and research terms, what else should be clearly defined in a research study?
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The population used in the study. For example, if the study was on women who had masectomies, the population could be further defined as women between the ages of 25-35 who has had a masectomy in the past year at U of L hospital.
The research _______ is the plan for how the study will be conducted.
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Design
The research _______ is concerned with how the data of a study will be collected and the means used to obtain the data.
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Research design
What are some examples of research designs?
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-Qualitative vs. Quantitative -Experiemental vs. True experimental, Quasi-experimental or Pre-experimental -Nonexperimental designs like survey studies, correlational studies, comparative studies and methodological studies
What is the major difference between experimental and non-experimental research designs?
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Experimental designs allow a researcher to manipulate a variable, decide who does/doesn't get an intervention, allow some control for extraneous variables, and allows for an active role. In a non-experimental design an investigator collects data without any variable manipulation.
Which type of research design, experimental or non-experimental, allows for a researcher to discuss cause and effect relationships?
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Experimental
Why have many nursing investigations been of the nonexperimental type?
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Because it is difficult to conduct experimental research on people due to ethical reasons.
The ___________ is a complete set of individuals/objects that possess a common attribute of interest to the researcher.
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Population
What must a researcher specify with regard to populations of interest in a study?
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The broad population of interest as well as the actual population available for the study.
The _______ population is made up of the group of people or objects that a researcher wants to generalize findings to. Also referred to as the universe.
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Target population (broad)
The ________ population is the group that is available for study by a researcher.
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Accessible (actual)
  
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