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Pediatric GI DisordersMaternity & Pediatric Nursing

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________ hepatitis impacts mostly adolescent females and is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, fever, fatigue and right upper quadrant pain.
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Autoimmune
How is acute hepatitis treated?
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Rest, hydration and nutrition
What classes of medications may be used to treat autoimmune hepatitis?
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Corticosteroids and immunosuppresants
_______ hepatitis is treated aggressively and requires NPO status, NG tube placement and administration of lactulose to decrease ammonia levels that lead to encephalopathy, TPN and vitamin K injections (for coagulation). Eventually a liver transplant will be needed.
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Fulminant
What are the risk factors for hepatitis?
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Foreign travel, sick contacts, medication use, abdominal trauma, sexual activity, IV drug use, blood product transfusion
What GI Disorder? The foregut fails to lengthen, separate, and fuse into two paralled tubes (Esophagus and trachea) during fetal development. Instead the esophagus may end in blind pouch.
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Esophageal atresia
What GI disorder? Develops as a pouch connected to the trachea by a fistula
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Tracheoesophageal fistula
What are the signs/symptoms of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula?
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Excessive salivation, Drooling, Cyanosis, Choking, coughing, Sneezing, during glucose feeding the infant returns fluid through the nose and mouth (risk for aspiration). Can be detected via ultrasound, but if not caught in advance, this child will choke and cough from the very first feeding
What are the priorities for a patient with esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula?
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Surgery (emergency) Maintenance of patent airway Prevention of pneumonia
Children with pyloric stenosis are at risk for aspiration which could lead to what complications?
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Pneumonia, Reactive airway disease, Color changes during feeding, Apnea or hematemesis
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What are common findings in the labs of children with pyloric stenosis?
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Will indicate decreased sodium, potassium, chloride Increased in pH and bicarbonate indicates metabolic alkalosis
Post-operatively for pyloric stenosis, when can a child resume oral intake?
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Feedings are begun 4 to 6 hours post op beginning with small frequent feedings of glucose, water or electrolyte solution. After 24 hours formula can be started
Congenital malformations in which intraabdominal contents herniate through the umbilical cord. Results when the abdominal contents such as intestines and liver fail to return to the abdomen when the abdominal wall begins to close by the tenth week of gestation....
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Omphalocele
The bowel herniates through a defect in the abdominal wall to the right of the umbilical cord and through the rectus muscle. No membrane covering the exposed bowel...
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Gastroschisis
How is the exposed bowel from Gastroschisis protected prior to correction?
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The exposed bowel is loosely covered in saline-soaked pads and the abdomen is wrapped in plastic drape or bowel bag. Silo placement
What position should an infant with a gastroschisis or omphalocele be positioned in order to protect the outpouching of intestinal contents?
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Infant should be placed in a right lateral decubitus position to enhance venous blood return from the gut and decrease the risk for compression of mesenteric vasculature.
Once identified, infants with omphalocele or gastroschisis are operated on within _______.
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24 hours.
Why is a child with an omphalocele or gastroschisis given an NG tube?
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For bowel decompression
Hepatitis A is spread by ______route. Hepatitis B is spread by ________ Hepatitis C is spread by __________ Hepatitis D occurs in children with ________. Hepatitis E is spread by _______or ___________.
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Hepatitis A is spread by fecal-oral route. Hepatitis B is spread by body fluids Hepatitis C is spread by blood or blood products Hepatitis D occurs in children with Hepatitis B. Hepatitis E fecal-oral route or contaminated water.
_______ is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal distention and diarrhea.
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Gastroenteritis
T/F Children suffering from dehydration should be placed on the BRAT diet to maintain nutrition. (Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Toast)
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False...it is low in nutrition, high in carbs and low in electrolytes
  
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