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Pediatric GI DisordersMaternity & Pediatric Nursing

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What metabolic imbalance can occur from dehydration?
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Metabolic alkalosis
_________ is when a proximal segment of the bowel slides into a more distal segment resulting in edema, vascular compromise and partial or total bowel obstruction.
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Intussusception
Intussusception is most common in male infants under the age of ______.
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2 years
Children with cystic fibrosis, celiac disease and Chron's disease are at higher risk for what GI problem?
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Intussusception
What GI disorder? Currant-jelly like stools and severe pain
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Intussusception
What GI disorder? Sausage-shaped mass in the upper mid-abdomen
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Intussusception (hallmark sign)
How is an intussusception typically treated?
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A barium enema, if that is unsuccessful, it is surgically treated.
_______ is a clinical syndrome of nutrient malabsorption and excessive intestinal fluid & electrolyte losses that occurs following massive small intestinal loss or surgical resection
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Short bowel syndrome
A child can lose up to 75% of the small intestine without serious long term problems as long as what three structures are preserved?
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The duodenum, terminal ileum and ileocecal valve
What is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction in children between the ages of 3 months and 3 years old?
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Intussusception
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What considerations are important to keep in mind after a child has been given Barium to treat/diagnose and intussusception?
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Barium can harden inside the intestine so the child needs to be on a laxative or stool softener as well.
If the terminal ileum of the small intestine is lost, what nutritional deficiencies develop?
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B12 deficiency and bile salt malabsorption
What nutritional deficiencies are common with short bowel syndrome and why?
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Fat-soluble vitamins (DAKE), calcium, magnesium and zinc because the small intestine is where these nutrients are normally absorbed.
If the ileocecal valve of the small intestine is lost, what problems develop?
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Bacterial overgrowth and poor intestinal motility
What are the major goals in treating short bowel syndrome?
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Minimizing bacterial overgrowth (antibiotics) and maximizing the child's nutritional status.
Loperamide and gastric acid suppressants are medications used to treat symptoms of short bowel syndrome by....
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Decreasing stool output (to maximize nutrient absorption)
Why do a lot of children with short bowel syndrome ultimately require intestinal and liver transplantation?
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Because of irreversible liver damage caused by long-term use of TPN
What is the primary symptom of short bowel syndrome?
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Diarrhea
________ is an immunologic disorder in which gluten causes damage to the small intestine.
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Celiac Disease
What are the classic symptoms of celiac disease?
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Steatorrhea, diarrhea, failure to thrive/weight loss, dental disorders, anemia, nutritional deficiencies
Children with celiac disease also commonly have what other food intolerance?
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Lactose intolerance
  
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