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Visual and Auditory SystemsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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The cochlea contains the _________, whose tiny ear hair cells respond to stimulation of selected portions of the basilar membrane according to pitch.
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Organ of Corti
Which cranial nerve transmits sound to the brain for processing?
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CN VIII-vestibulocochlear
Which part of the brain processes and interprets sound?
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The temporal lobe
What are the two divisions of the inner ear?
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The bony labyrinth which includes the cochlea and the organ of Corti. The second is the basilar membrane which governs hearing. The membranous labyrinth (located within the bony labyrinth) which includes the semicircular canals and the vestibule. It governs balance.
The membranous labyrinth is filled with ________ fluid. The bony labyrinth is filled with _________ fluid.
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Membranous-endolympathic Bony-Perilymphatic
What is the function of the endolympathic and perilymphatic fluid located in the bony and membranous labyrinth of the inner ear?
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It cushions the structures and communicates with the brain and the subarachnoid spaces of the brain.
What ear problems can cause vertigo?
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Debris or excessive pressure within the lymphatic fluid of the inner ear.
Describe the process of the transmission of sound...
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Sound waves are detected by the auricles and the auditory canal. They are carried to the tympanic membrane causing it to vibrate. The vibration travels through the malleus, incus and stapes (ossicles). The stapes moves back and forth, and pushes the membrane of the oval window. Waves are produced in the perilymph and the tiny sensory hair cells of the cochlea convert it to a nerve impulse. The impulses are carried by nerve fibers to CN VIII and then to the brain.
Bones of the skull can transmit sound directly to the _______ ear. This is called bone conduction.
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Inner
__________ is the term for hearing loss due to aging. It can also be caused by noise exposure, vascular or systemic diseases, poor/inadequate nutrition, ototoxic drugs or pollution.
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Presbycusis
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What structures are damaged in presbycusis?
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The hair cells of the organ of Corti and/or lymph-producing cells are atrophied. Ossicles are calcified.
_________ is an auditory abnormality that may accompany hearing loss resulting from the aging process.
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Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
Problems with balance may manifest as _______ or ______.
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Nystagmus or Vertigo
________ is abnormal eye movements that may be observed by others as twitching of the eyeball or described by the patient as a blurring of vision with head or eye movement.
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Nystagmus
__________ is a sense that the person or objects around the person are moving or spinning and is usually stimulated by movement of the head.
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Vertigo
A sensation of being off-balance that occurs when standing or walking is called ___________.
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Dizziness
Dizziness is a sensation that doesn't occur when a person is...
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Lying down
T/F Many problems related to the ear are sequelae from childhood illnesses or result from problems of adjacent organs.
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TRUE
What is refractometry?
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A subjective measure of refractive error. Lenses are mounted on rotating wheels and the patient looks through them and indicates when the acuity improves. This is the common tool used during an eye exam.
________ drugs are used to paralyze accommodation during refractometry. Dilation may last 3-4 hours.
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Cycloplegic
A-scan ultrasonography is used to...
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Get an axial length measurement for calculating power of an intraocular lens implanted after cataract extraction.
  
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