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Visual and Auditory SystemsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Question Answer
__________ is the ability of the eye to bend light rays so they fall on the retina.
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Refraction
What is emmetropia?
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It means that light is refracted and focused exactly on the retina
What is a refractive error?
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When light isn't focused properly on the retina (in front of it, behind it, etc.)
What is myopia?
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Near-sightedness
What is hyperopia?
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Farsightedness
__________ is caused by an uneveness of the cornea, which results in visual distortion.
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Astigmatism
__________ is a form of hyperopia that occurs as a normal process of aging, usually around 40.
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Presbyopia
Images refracted on the left side of BOTH eyes form the (left or right?) optic tract and travel to the (left or right?) occipital cortex.
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Left optic tract, left side of the occipital cortex
Images refracted on the right side of BOTH eyes form the (left or right?) optic tract and travel to the (left or right?) occipital cortex.
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Right optic tract, right side of the occipital cortex
Describe the path of an image through the visual pathway...
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Eye, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, optic radiation, to the occipital lobe (visual cortex)
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What crosses over at the optic chiasm?
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The visual fibers closest to the nose cross over to the other side, allowing for only the images on the left side of the eye to travel one optic tract and the images on the right side of the eye to travel down another.
Where does the optic chiasm terminate?
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At the lateral geniculate body
How are the locations of abnormalities of nerve fibers of the eye determined?
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By the interpretation of specific visual field defects. Location of a lesion in the visual pathway determines the resulting visual defect.
What external structures protect the eye?
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The eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, the surrounding bony orbit and fat pads located below and behind the globe (eyeball).
Where do the upper and lower eyelids join?
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At the medial and lateral canthi.
What are the purposes of blinking?
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It distributes tears over the eyeball and controls the amount of light entering the visual pathway
How many times does a person blink in a minute?
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15
Eyelids open and close through actions of muscles innervated by CN _____, which also helps hold the eyelids against the eyeball.
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VII-facial nerve
The ________ is a transparent mucous membrane that covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids and extend over the sclera to form a pocket under each eyelid.
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Conjunctiva
The palpebral conjunctiva covers the _______ of the eyelids.
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Inner surfaces
The _______ conjunctiva covers the sclera.
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