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Visual and Auditory SystemsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Sound conducted through the external and middle ear is called _________ conduction.
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Air conduction
_________ hearing loss occurs when there's a problem with the middle or external ear. It alters a person's perception of or sensitivity to sound.
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Conductive hearing loss
Pathology or damage to the inner ear or its pathway to the brain results in ___________ hearing loss.
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Sensorineural hearing loss
________ hearing loss is characterized by a difficulty in understanding the meaning of words that are heard.
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Central (impairment within the central auditory system)
What makes up the external ear?
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The auricle (pinna) and the external auditory canal, its epithelium and glands
What does the glands of the external ear produce and what is its purpose?
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Sebaceous glands produce oil and the ceruminous glands produce wax which together to lubricate the ear canal. This keeps it free of debris and kills bacteria.
The external ear and canal collects and transmits sound to the __________.
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Tympanic Membrane
What structure serves as a partition between the external and middle ear?
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The tympanic membrane (ear drum)
What is the function of the tympanic membrane?
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It serves as a partition and conducts sound transmission between the external auditory canal and the middle ear.
Where is the middle ear located?
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It is in an airspace located in the temporal bone.
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What makes up the middle ear?
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The auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes), the eustachian tubes, and mucous membranes that extend from the middle ear through the eustachian tube to the nasal pharynx, and the oval window.
What is the function of the eustachian tube?
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It equalizes air pressure between the middle ear and throat and allows the tympanic membrane to freely move
The eustachian tube opens with _______ & ________.
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Yawning and swallowing
Vibrations of the tympanic membrane cause the __________ to move and transmit sound waves to the oval window.
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Ossicles
The oval window vibration causes fluid in the inner ear to move and stimulates _________.
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The receptors of hearing
What are the functions of the oval window?
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Stimulates the receptors of hearing through movement of fluid and maintains fluid balance of the inner ear
What is the upper portion of the middle ear called and what is its function?
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The epitympanum, it communicates with air cells within the mastoid bone.
CN ______ is above the oval window of the middle ear. The bony covering can become damaged by chronic ear infections, skull fracture or trauma during ear surgery.
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CN VII-facial nerve
Problems with voluntary facial movements, eyelid closure, taste discrimination, can all result from damage to the middle ear and CN _____.
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CN VII-Facial (the damage can be permanent, and results from chronic ear infections, fracture or surgical trauma)
The receptor organ for hearing, located in the inner ear, is called...
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The cochlea
The cochlea contains the _________, whose tiny ear hair cells respond to stimulation of selected portions of the basilar membrane according to pitch.
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Organ of Corti
  
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