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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?
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painless hematuria, daytime frequency, nocturia, urgency, urge incontinence, and flank pain.
How is vesicoureteral reflux treated?
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if small may spontaneously correct; surgery
Very painful kidney stones are either _______ or located in the _______ urinary tract.
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the bigger they get, the more painful they are; painful when they reach the lower urinary tract.
What are the 5 main functions of the kidneys?
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regulate volume and composition of ECF (filtration, reabsorption, secretion), rerun secretion/BP control, produce erythropoietin, activate vitamin D, and acid-base balance.
What conditions increase the likelihood of calcium stones?
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bone cancer, hyperparathyroidism, small intestine disease
_______ is damage to the renal tubule cells. Caused by surgery, drugs or myoglobinemia.
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Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
A syndrome of renal failure including increased blood urea and creatinine levels. Fatigue, n/v, anorexia, uremic frost, pruritis, and neuro changes...
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uremia; can result from missed dialysis.
What is oliguria (specifically)?
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Less than 30 mL per hour, less than 240 mL per 8 hours, and less than 400 mL per day.
What are risk factors for stress incontinence?
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Female, mom, fat, old, and chronic cough.
_______ incontinence is the most common type.
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Diseases of the _______ increase the tendency to form calcium oxalate stones.
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small intestine
Pyelonephritis is an ascending infection that impacts...
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kidneys (renal pelvis, calyces, medulla)
Below the level of the kidneys...
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Post renal
_______ means increased serum urea and creatinine levels.
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Azotemia (especially urea)
Who is most likely to get malignant urinary tract growths?
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Men, African Americans, 50-60%. Make up 85% of cases
Explain the Renin Angiotensin System...
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Decreased blood volume or decreased Na+ to the glomerular cells. Release of Renin. Renin converted to Angiotensin I by angiotensinogen. Angiotensin I gets converted to Angiotensin II (lungs). Angiotensin II acts on blood vessels and adrenal cortex (se
Normal urine output is ______ml/hr or _______ to _______ a day.
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35 ml/hr or 1000-1200 ml
Costal Vertebral Angle (CVA) tenderness can determine...
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how far up the bacteria has ascended.
What are the progressive forms of glomerulonephritis?
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sub acute; crescentic; extra capillary
What are the signs and symptoms of UTI in children?
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Restlessness; irritability; enuresis; fever; and foul smelling urine.
  
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