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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are the signs and symptoms of UTI in children?
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Restlessness; irritability; enuresis; fever; and foul smelling urine.
What causes vesicoureteral reflux?
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The sphincter from the ureter to the bladder is ineffective causing retrograde flow of bladder urine into the ureters.
How is enuresis treated?
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Control fluids; bed alarms; and desmopressin.
The inflammation and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane in the kidney that serves as the filter separating waste and fluid from blood.
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Glomerulonephritis
What can cause a bladder outlet obstruction?
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BPH; ureteral strictures
What are risk factors for bladder cancer?
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Smoking, history of chronic bladder inflammation, family history, industrial chemicals, old, caucasian, and male.
Urolithiasis can cause obstructions in the _______ urinary tract.
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upper or lower urinary tract
What are the different types of kidney stones?
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Calcium oxylate/phosphate; struvite; uric acid; and cystine.
If a kidney stone is greater than _______, it will require medical intervention.
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1cm
Vesicoureteral reflex is often congenital and can lead to _______.
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pyelonephritis
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What are signs and symptoms of a nephrotic syndrome?
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Massive proteinuria; edema; hypoalbuminemia; hyperlipidemia; lipiduria; and decreased vitamin D.
What are some complications that can result from upper tract obstructions?
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Hydroureters; Hydronephrosis; Renal Failure; and HTN.
Irreversible damage from an obstruction occurs within _______.
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4 weeks
What are signs and symptoms of cystitis?
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hyperemic and inflamed; pus formation; necrosis of the bladder wall if severe; increased WBC/nitrites in urine; hematuria; burning; low back pain; foul urine; and cloudy urine.
Uric acid stones are more common in _______, especially those with _______.
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men; gout
What are some causes of Intrarenal failure?
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Acute tubular necrosis; nephrotoxic drugs (2/3 day OP/1 day IP); heavy metals; organic solvents; acute glomerulonephritis; and acute pyelonephritis.
What are the 4 most nephrotoxic agents?
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Aminoglycosides; antifungal agents; cyclosporine; radiocontrast
What is the most common cause of intrarenal failure?
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Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
What are risk factors for a UTI?
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Female; sexually active; use of diaphragm with spermicide; diabetics; recent instrumentation (like catheter); obstructive uropathy.
What is the disease process of acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis?
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Deposition of A/A complex in glomerulus. Clumping. Inflammation. Increase in glomerulocapillary permeability. Hematuria and proteinuria.
What are causes of overflow incontinence? How is it treated?
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Neurogenic defect, a stone, tumor. Treated by removing cause unless neurogenic catheter.
  
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