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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are causes of overflow incontinence? How is it treated?
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Neurogenic defect, a stone, tumor. Treated by removing cause unless neurogenic catheter.
What are some causes of Prerenal failure?
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Hypovolemia; hemorrhage; septicemia; LHF; and interruption of renal blood flow.
How do osmotic diuretics work?
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Increase the osmolality of plasma and fluid in the renal tubules. Causes Na+, K+ and Cl- to be excreted with H20.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are contraindicated for women who _______.
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are in their 1st trimester of pregnancy
Prolonged use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can lead to _______.
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metabolic acidosis
Mannitol solution should not be used for IV solution if _______ are present.
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undissolved crystals
______ and _______ are the most commonly prescribed osmotic diuretics.
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Mannitol and urea
What are osmotic diuretics used for?
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Prevent kidney failure. Decrease intracranial pressure (ICP) and decrease intraocular pressure (glaucoma).
What are signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis?
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Upper UT: fever with chills, diaphoresis, n/v, lower UTI symptoms, CVA tenderness (costal vertebral angle).
Nephrotic syndrome is a ______ disorder.
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Glomerular
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What happens with pyelonephritis?
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Kidneys infected. Medullary infiltration of WBC's with inflammation. Edema. Purulent urine. Scarring. Chronic.
Classic signs and symptoms of UTI, urethritis and Cystitis are the same. They are:
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Urinary frequency and urgency; increased WBC and/or nitrates in urine; hematuria; burning, foul smelling cloudy urine; low back pain.
What are symptoms of Acute Renal Failure?
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Decreased GFR; increased creatinine and BUN; oliguria.
What are signs and symptoms of glomerular disease?
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Proteinuria (albumin), hematuria, hypoproteinemia, edema, HTN.
What does the severity of upper and lower tract obstructions depend on?
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Location, duration, degree of obstruction, infection, nature of the lesion.
What is the most common cause of end stage renal disease?
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Glomerulonephritis (disease course=1month)
What are the stages of Chronic Renal Failure?
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Decreased renal reserve; renal insufficiency (25% function); renal failure (10% start dialysis); ESDR: dialysis or death.
What is the most common congenital disorder of the renal system?
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Vesicoureteral reflux
What factors increase the risk of malignant tumors of the urinary tract?
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Obesity, tobacco, analgesics (ibuprofen, naprosyn), HTN.
What are some causes of lower urinary tract obstructions?
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Prostate cancer, pelvic organ prolapse, stones that have moved from the upper urinary tract.
Chronic pyelonephritis can be caused by...
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structural abnormalities, obstruction and reflux, neurogenic bladder.
  
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