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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Chronic pyelonephritis can be caused by...
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structural abnormalities, obstruction and reflux, neurogenic bladder.
What are the 3 main causes of Pyelonephritis?
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E.coli, proteus, pseudomonas. Usually GI tract organisms.
In the advanced stages of a malignant urinary growth, what are the signs and symptoms?
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Consistent hematuria, flank pain, palpable mass, weight loss, and fatigue.
Nephrotic syndrome in children occurs before age _______, in _______ and results in increased glomerular permeability.
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8; boys
An acute renal disorder characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and RF...
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hemolytic uremic syndrome. Occurs mostly in kids under 4.
What are the different types of RF?
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Global or segmental involvement of glomeruli. Diffuse or focal.
In nearly all types of glomerular disease, the _______ layer of the membrane is disturbed with _______. This leads to _______ crossing over.
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Epithelial/podocyte layer; loss of (-) charge and increased permeability; blood and proteins cross-over.
Renal insufficiency impacts _______.
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the entire body
What is a hydroureter?
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The ureter swells to accommodate fluid volume from an obstruction, if untreated, will progress to a hydronephrosis.
_______is the most common organism responsible for uncomplicated UTI infections.
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E.coli
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The _______ is one of the most metabolically active organs in the body.
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kidney
What is urolithiasis?
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Stone formation anywhere in the urinary tract.
Secondary enuresis can signal...
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abuse; change in family status.
What is compensatory hypertrophy?
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It's a response to a unilateral obstruction. The other, unobstructed kidney will hypertrophy to compensate for the decreased GFR on the affected side.
What can cause a ureteral obstruction?
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Calculi; tumors.
Frequent dribbling of urine that relieves a constantly full bladder that is unable to empty for whatever reason...
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overflow incontinence.
Postobstructive diuresis can lead to...
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Severe dehydration and loss of Na+, K+ and other electrolytes.
Once the problem is fixed, a patient with compensatory hypertrophy will experience...
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a reversal of the hypertrophy; the enlarged kidney will return to it's normal size.
What is the most common malignant renal tumor in kids?
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Wilms tumor/Nephroblastoma
People with myoglobinuria are at increased risk for _______.
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Compartment Syndrome
People with myoglobinuria will have increased levels of _______ and will be in a state of _______.
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Increased lactic acid; increased CK (creatine kinase); metabolic acidosis.
  
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