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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
People with myoglobinuria will have increased levels of _______ and will be in a state of _______.
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Increased lactic acid; increased CK (creatine kinase); metabolic acidosis.
_______can get myoglobinuria, independent of a car accident.
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Extreme Athletes
Inflammation of the bladder...
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cystitis.
An acute inflammation of the urinary tract is _______ and occurs _______.
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most common; have one and then no more for months or years.
What congenital abnormalities are usually coupled with a Wilms tumor?
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aniridia (without iris); hemihypertrophy (asymmetry of body); genitourinary malformation.
What are the main reasons for persistent urinary tract infections?
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Bacterial resistance; treatment with wrong antibiotic; resistant secondary bacteria; inability of kidneys to secrete antibiotic; foreign body; papillary necrosis.
What factors influence stone formation?
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Increased amounts of stone-forming substances in urine or blood; urine pH; decreased urine output; tubular defects; drugs (that decrease urination); diet; crystal growth inhibiting factors; secondary pathology; infection.
What is the most common glomerulonephritis? What causes it?
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Acute post streptococcal (chicken pox, shingles, strep)
A decrease in renal function to about 25% of normal. Mildly increased serum creatinine and urea. Decreased GFR to about 25-30 mL/min.
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Renal insufficiency
As GFR _______, creatinine will go up.
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decreases; decreased GFR, Increased Creatine=bad
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Renal failure results when _______% of function remains.
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10%
What is a hypoplastic kidney?
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A small kidney. If bilateral, leads to renal failure.
UTI's are _______ in newborns.
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rare
When children get UTI's, they are more common in _______.
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girls aged 5-11. If more than 2, warrants investigation.
What is the most common type of kidney stones?
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Calcium Oxylate/Phosphate
_______ and _______ should never be present in urine.
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RBC and proteins
_______ and _______ are what's used to determine how well the kidneys are functioning.
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GFR and creatinine clearance rate
Once an obstruction has been removed, what should a nurse be concerned with?
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The clearing of the obstruction leads to mass fluid excretion. Increased risk of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Monitor electrolytes and IV fluids, and output.
How is postobstructive diuresis treated?
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May need K+ runs (3 bags consecutively); IV fluids.
_______ is the most common progressive glomerulonephritis.
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Chronic Glomerulonephritis
What should be monitored in a patient with glomerolonephritis?
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Urine output.
  
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