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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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What are the signs and symptoms of a lower tract obstruction?
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Increased frequency of urination, greater than every 2 hours; nocturia; poor force of stream; intermittent stream; urgency/hesitancy; feeling of incomplete emptying; acute urinary retention history.
What is a common cause of prerenal failure?
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Hemorrhage
What causes hyperlipidemia in nephrotic syndrome?
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When lipids are lost in the urine, the liver creates massive amounts as a compensatory mechanism.
What are the body's normal defense mechanisms against UTI's?
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Acidic pH (less than 6); absence of glucose in urine; dilute urine; trapping of ascending bacteria (mucous); urethral sphincter.
How are kidney stones diagnosed?
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Clear film x-ray.
In the early stages of a malignant urinary tract growth, what are the signs and symptoms?
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No symptoms.
An inflammation of the urinary epithelium in response to colonization with a pathogen...
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UTI
Enlargement and fibrosis of the proximal nephron will occur within _______ of an obstruction.
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2 weeks
Glomeruli get damaged from an obstruction within _______.
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28 days
What causes a Wilms tumor?
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The young embronal cells that are destined to become kidney cells never differentiate. They multiply rapidly and lead to a tumor.
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_______ are the most common malignant renal cell carcinoma.
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Adenocarcinomas
Urolithiasis is generally _______.
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Urolithiasis=kidney stones; usually asymptomatic
A rare embryonal tumor of the kidney; usually diagnosed at age 1-5, peaking at age 2-3...
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Wilms tumor, nephroblastoma
Abrupt reduction in renal function...
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Acute Renal Failure
After post renal obstruction correction, what needs to be monitored?
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Electrolytes; the kidney excrete so much urine that there's not enough filtration allowing electrolytes to escape.
Inflammation of the urethra...
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urethritis
What is an Aplastic kidney?
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A kidney that is missing at birth; usually left kidney; usually in males.
How is vesicoureteral reflux severity measured?
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Graded by amount of backflow.
The main work of the kidneys occur in the _______.
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nephrons/glomerulus
How are urolithiasis stones treated if they are 5 mm or less?
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50% chance they will pass on their own; shock waves: ESWL.
If a patient has an obstruction, you have _______ before the distal nephrons are irreversibly damaged.
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one week
  
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