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Renal SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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What is the number one factor in the development of bladder cancer?
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Smoking, but chronic bladder inflammation also increases risk.
What is the number one cause of UTI?
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E.coli
Who is most likely to experience urge incontinence?
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Women (also related to caffeine intake).
Sudden and uncontrollable need to void; gotta go! Idiopathic.
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Urge incontinence
_______ are more likely to get calcium stones, usually between the ages of 20-30.
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Men
If a boy under 2 has more than _______ UTIs he should be assessed for a congenital abnormality.
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1 (his 2nd one warrants assessment). Girl should be assessed at 3rd one.
What is obstructive uropathy?
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Structural or functional changes in the urinary tract that hinder normal urine flow.
In _______ urinary tract infections, symptoms last despite 3 days of treatment.
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persistent infections
A stricture is a _______ of the ureter. It can be caused by....
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compression; Caused by calculi, scarring, pregnancy; inflammation or irritation.
_______ urine pH tends to promote stone formation.
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High or low urine pH
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Which renal stone is more common in women?
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Struvite
What is the most common obstruction of the upper urinary tract?
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renal calculi
How does a renal calculi lead to damage of parenchymal cells?
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A blockage prevents fluids from being excreted, meanwhile the kidneys are still producing urine. Urine backs up. The pressure is exerted on the parenchymal cells and damages them.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis are _______, whereas UTI symptoms are _______.
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pyelonephritis = systemic; UTI = localized
  
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