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Question Answer
What is the 6 minute test?
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Diagnostic for exertional dyspnea. Patient walks for 6 minutes with pulse oximeter, SOA = exertional dyspnea.
Difficulty breathing while laying down ...
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Orthopnea
How is orthopnea measured?
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In pillows. One pillow = mild; two - three = moderate; four/upright in the lazy boy = significant.
What is the normal mean pulmonary artery pressure?
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15 - 18 mm HG
What is pulmonary HTN?
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A rise in arterial pressure usually from remodeling of the vessels; 23 mm Hg and higher.
What chemical imbalance is common with ARDS?
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Metabolic acidosis (from hypoxia and build up of lactic acid). If you can't breath out, acid goes up.
What are the classic signs and symptoms of ARDS?
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Rapid shallow breathing, marked dyspnea, decreased lung compliance, hypoxemia unresponsive to oxygen, white out on CXR, lung crackles, wheezing, and wet .
What is the pathophysiology of ARDS?
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Inflammation response; Sequestering and activation of neutrophils, macrophages, and endotoxin release; Release of immune mediators which: raise capillary membrane permeability, cause changes in small airway diameter, cause pulmonary vasoconstriction, and
What are risk factors for ARDS?
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Direct factors: aspiration, near drowning, toxic inhalation, pulmonary contusion, pneumonia (common), oxygen toxicity, radiation, and autoimmune disease. Indirect factors: sepsis, nonthoracic trauma, hypertransfusion, cardiopulmonary bipass, embolism, D
What is acute respiratory distress syndrome?
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Response to insult of the lung; An increase in membrane capillary permeability leads to alveolar flooding; Fluid causes atelectasis and damages the type I (surfactant) and type II alveolar cells; Bronchoconstriction occurs which leads to increased work to
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Mesothelioma, Silicosis, and Black lung are all forms of ...
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pneumoconiosis
What is pneumoconiosis?
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Occupation disorder; Foreign matter gets into the lungs and cannot be removed by the immune system. Results in continual inflammation and lung irritation. Lung tissue is remodeled with non-elastic lung tissue and causes restrictive lung disease; Fatal.
A cough that lasts longer than _______ should be further investigated.
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4 to 6 weeks
What is a V/Q ratio?
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The ratio between ventilation in the lungs and perfusion in the lungs.
What are signs and symptoms of PAD?
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Patient is pale and cool, hair loss distal to block, unequal or no pulse, pain worsens when elevated, dry ulcers on foot/toes, and difficulty healing.
What is myoglobinemia (Rhabdomyolysis)?
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Not enough blood to kidneys; results in tubular necrosis.
PAD vs. PVD
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PAD: dry ulcer on foot/toes, unequal or no pulse, pain on elevation, and no edema. PVD: wet ulcer on ankle, pulse not measured, pain when standing and edema.
PDA, ASD and VSD all result in _______ pulmonary blood flow.
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raised
A severe, rapidly progressing infection usually caused by Haemophilus influenza type B. Raised fever, sore throat, stridor and severe resp. distress.
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Acute Epiglottis
What are the classic signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis?
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Increased infections, dyspnea on exertion, productive cough, decreased FEVI (less than 70 % not reversed by meds), polycythemia (chronic hypoxia), cyanosis, clubbing, cor pulmonale, and pulmonary HTN.
Laryngeal cancer is a _______ carcinoma. There are 3 types, they are:
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Squamous cell, carcinoma of true vocal cords, supraglottic, subglottic (rare).
  
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