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Respiratory SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Characterized by shorter, faster breaths. Lungs are less compliant/pliable...
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Restricted breathing
How is chronic bronchitis treated?
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Expectorants, broncho dilators, inhaled corticosteroids (Spireva), chest percussion, and deep breathing.
What is the pathologic process of pulmonary edema?
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Transudation of protein - poor fluid into the alveoli decreasing diffusion capacity, fluid accumulates. Hypoxemia results. Extreme dyspnea, anxiety, frothy-pink sputum with cough, sensation of drowning, crackles, pain, cold, pale skin.
What is an open pneumothorax?
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Damage to the parietal pleura that has broken the seal causing the lung to collapse. Open to outside world. Stab wound, lung punctured by ribs, etc.
24 respirations a minute is _______ . This results in _______ .
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Hyperventilation; hypocapnea
What are some causes of chronic coughing?
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ACE inhibitors, post nasal drip, acid reflux, asthma, and cancer.
What is pulmonary stenosis?
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Obstruction of blood flow causing a narrowing at the pulmonary artery. Increased workload to right side of heart can lead to HF.
A normal V/Q ratio is...
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0.8
Croup is common in children aged _______ . It is usually caused by _______ .
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6 months to 5 years; a virus - parainfluenza, Flu A or RSV
What does aspiration of a foreign object commonly lead to?
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pneumonia
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A pus pocket on the tonsils that needs to be lanced to prevent airway obstruction...
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Peritonsillar abcess
All COPD patients have _______ and lose the drive to breath from increase in CO2.
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hypercapnia
Bronchogenic carcinomas arise from _______ .
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Epithelial cells of resp. tract. Get damaged by what's inspired and change.
How is chronic bronchitis diagnosed?
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CXR; pulmonary fxn tests.
What are diagnostic tests for asthma?
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Spirtometer, decreased FVC (blow out), and FEV I (amount of air expelled from lungs in 1 second)
The more episodes of asthma attacks, the more _______ needed to control it.
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medications
What genetic defect causes emphysema? Gender affected?
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Alpha I antitrypsin deficiency. Proteolytic enzymes eat the lining of the lungs. Occurs in men.
The number one killer of CF patients is _______ .
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Pneumonia
Bronchiolitis is the same thing as _______ .
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RSV
_______ is a sign of respiratory failure.
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Respiratory acidosis (asthma)
Lip cancer is a _______ carcinoma caused by smoking and chronic sun exposure.
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squamous cell carcinoma
  
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