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Respiratory SystemMedical Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
The _______ population are prone to typical/community acquired pneumonia.
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sick and/or elderly
The _______ population are more likely to get atypical pneumonia.
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young and healthy (don't smoke); caused by flu and fungi.
How does acute bronchitis differ from pneumonia?
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Bronchitis doesn't demonstrate pulmonary consolidation and chest infilatres.
What are signs and symptoms of TB?
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Night sweats, hemoptosis, fever, chills and decreased weight.
What is the pathology of TB?
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Bacilli are inhaled into lungs; macrophages and neutrophils wall area off = tubercle; caseous necrosis occur (matter in tubercle liquafies): looks cheesy with holes on x-ray; complete isolation of bacilli within dead tissue; and decreased immunity can al
What causes TB and how is it transmitted?
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis; acid-fast bacillus, very difficult to treat; and transmitted via airborne droplets.
What are classic signs and symptoms of pneumonia?
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Proceeded by an URI, cough, dyspnea, fever, chills, crackles, wheezing, possible hypoxemia, leukocytosis, and consolidation of effected lobe on x-ray.
What are characteristics of viral pneumonia?
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Usually self-limiting; infiltration of leukocytes and inflammation.
What is the pathology of bacterial pneumonia?
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Inflammatory is activated; alveolar edema; and consolidation: filling the lobe with exudates.
What are the risk factors for pneumonia?
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Elderly, underlying lung disease, alcoholism, decreased consciousness/neuro defect, smoking, intubation, malnutrition, immobilization, multiple chronic diseases, post-op, NG tube, and increased secretions.
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Community acquire pneumonia is _______ to treat than nosocomial types.
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easier
How is pulmonary HTN typically detected?
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x-ray or EKG
What are signs and symptoms of pulmonary HTN?
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Often masked by a primary disease, fatigue, chest discomfort, tachypnea, and dyspnea.
What is primary pulmonary HTN?
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Idiopathic HTN that occurs commonly in women between 20 - 40. Eventually lead to RHF. Need heart and lung transplant.
How is pulmonary arterial pressure measured?
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a. Swan-Gantz catheter. Goes in through external jugular and goes down through the right atria through the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
  
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