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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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The most common visual problem is ___________.
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Refractive error
This visual defect prevents light rays from converging into a single focus on the retina...
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Refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, amblyopia and aphakia)
What are some causes of refractive errors? (3)
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Corneal curvature, focusing power of the lens, or the length of the eye
Which type of refractive error is the most common?
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Myopia (near-sightedness)
A client complains of blurred vision and a sensation of straining to see. He also states that he's been experiencing headaches lately. What is most likely going on?
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He has a refractive error like myopia, presbyopia, etc. Blurred vision is the most common sign, followed by ocular discomfort, eye strain and headaches.
What is the difference between presbyopia and hyperopia?
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Hyperopia is farsightedness, Presbyopia is farsightedness due to a decrease in the accommodative ability of the eye that results from aging.
________ is a condition that can develop in children with refractive errors that go uncorrected. It is characterized by reduced vision in the affected eye.
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Amblyopia
Refractive errors in children don't produce further pathology (if uncorrected) after age _____.
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6
_______ causes light rays to be focused in front of the retina and can be caused by excessive light refraction of the cornea or an abnormally long eye. There is an inability to accommodate for objects at a distance.
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Myopia
_________ causes light rays to focus behind the retina and requires the patient to use accommodation to focus the light rays for near and far objects. This can occur when the cornea or lens doesn't have enough focusing power or when the eyeball is too short.
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Hyperopia
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________ occurs when the lens of the eye becomes larger, firmer and less elastic. The eye's accommodative abilities decrease and there's an inability to accommodate for near objects.
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Presbyopia (starts to develop around age 45)
________ is caused by an abnormal corneal curvature and causes light rays to be bent unequally. The light rays don't come to a single point of focus on the retina. This can occur with any of the other refractive errors.
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Astigmatism
The absence of the lens of the eye is called ________. It can occur congenitally or surgically (as with cataract surgery). This causes an image to be focused behind the retina.
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Aphakia
What is functional aphakia?
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A lens that is traumatically dislocated but still in the eye.
Between Caucasians, African Americans and Asian Americans, who has the highest incidence of hearing problems?
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Caucasians
Between Caucasians and African Americans, who has the highest incidence of glaucoma?
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African Americans
Which ethnicity has the highest incidence of diabetic neuropathy?
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Hispanics
Between Caucasians and Native Americans, who has a higher incidence of otitis media?
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Native Americans
Between Caucasians, Hispanics, African Americans and Asian Americans, who has the highest incidence of macular degeneration?
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Caucasians
Which refractive error requires a corrective minus (concave) lens?
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Myopia
  
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