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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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Question Answer
Hypertensive retinopathy is caused by high blood pressure creating _______ in the retinal blood vessels.
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Blockages
Sustained, severe hypertension can cause sudden visual loss from swelling of the _______. This is also referred to as papilledema.
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Optic disc and nerve
How is papilledema treated?
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By reducing a patient's blood pressure, however, it may take weeks to months for the signs of retinal damage to reduce
T/F A person with hypertension can have retinal hemorrhages and macular swelling and not have any vision loss.
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TRUE
A retinal detachment is the separation of the sensory retina and the underlying __________ with fluid accumulation between the two layers.
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Pigment epithelium
Retinal detachment is more likely to occur in patients that are _______.
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Aphakic (no lens)
What happens if a patient with a retinal detachment doesn't get treatment?
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They will go blind in that eye
Retinal ________ are an interruption in the full thickness of retinal tissue and can be sub-classified into tears or holes.
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Breaks
Retinal ______ are atrophic breaks that occur spontaneously .
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Holes
Retinal _______ can occur as the vitreous humor shrinks during aging and pulls on the retina.
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Tears
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The most common cause of retinal detachment is a retinal ________.
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Break
A retinal break can cause liquid vitreous to enter the subretinal space between the sensory retinal layer and the retinal pigment epithelium layer. This is called a ___________ retinal detachment.
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Rhegmatogenous (this word means caused by a tear)
________ retinal detachments are caused by abnormal membranes mechanically pulling on the retina.
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Tractional
_________ retinal detachments occurs with conditions (like choroidal tumors or intraocular inflammation) that allow fluid to accumulate in the subretinal space.
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Exudative/Secondary
A patient comes in and tells you that lately she has been experiencing flashes of light, floaters and cobwebs in her line of vision. She would like to know if she should be concerned. You tell her that these symptoms point to...
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Retinal detachment
What are the signs that a patient has had a retinal detachment?
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They experience a painless loss of peripheral or central vision that was like a curtain coming across their field of vision
If a client experiences a retinal detachment in the superior nasal retina area, where will the vision loss occur?
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In the inferior temporal area (the detachment corresponds with the area of vision loss). Top of the nose corresponds with the inferior portion of the temporal area
How can a retinal detachment be visualized?
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With an opthamaloscope or by using slit lamp microscopy with a special lens to view the periphery of the retina
_________ is useful for detecting retinal detachment in a client that has a hazy or opaque cornea, lens or vitreous.
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Ultrasound
________ and ______ are both surgical techniques that seal retinal breaks by creating an inflammatory reaction that causes a chorioretinal adhesion or scar.
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Laser photocoagulation and cryopexy
___________ is a surgical procedure that involves an intense, precisely focused light beam to create an inflammatory reaction to repair a retinal break. It is commonly used to repair single, small tears with little or no detachment of the retina in the periphery and minimal subretinal fluid.
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Laser photocoagulation
  
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