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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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___________ is a surgical procedure that involves an intense, precisely focused light beam to create an inflammatory reaction to repair a retinal break. It is commonly used to repair single, small tears with little or no detachment of the retina in the periphery and minimal subretinal fluid.
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Laser photocoagulation
If a client has retinal breaks accompanied by significant detachment, the physician may use laser photocoagulation in conjunction with ________.
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Scleral buckling
_______ is a surgical procedure that uses extreme cold to create an inflammatory process that produces a sealing scar over a retinal break.
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Cryopexy
Out of laser photocoagulation and cryopexy treatments for retinal tears, which one produces the most pain?
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Cryopexy (the nurse should encourage the client to take the prescribed pain medication after the procedure)
__________ is an extraocular surgical procedure that involves indenting the globe so that the pigment, epithelium, choroid and sclera move toward a detached retina. This seals retinal breaks and relieves inward traction on the retina. A silicone implant is sutured in place, and sometimes an encircling band is used as well if there are many breaks or significant traction.
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Scleral buckling
__________ is an intraocular procedure which involves an intravitreal injection of a gas to form a temporary bubble in the vitreous which closes retinal breaks and provides apposition (contact) of the separated retinal layers. The patient has to position their head so the bubble is in contact with the retinal break and maintain that position as much as possible for up to several weeks. This technique is often coupled with laser photocoagulation or cryopexy.
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Pneumatic retinopexy
_________ is a surgical removal of the vitreous and is commonly done to relieve traction from diabetic proliferative retinopathy. It can be coupled with scleral buckling.
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Vitrectomy
_________ is a condition where membranes develop into the vitreous cavity and on the retinal surface, exerting traction that causes folds in the retina. It can be treated with a vitrectomy combined with membrane peeling.
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Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR)
________ is the most common cause of irreversible central vision loss in people over the age of 60.
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Age related macular degeneration (AMD)
_____ age related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by close vision tasks becoming more difficult due to atrophy of macular cells. It produces a progressive and painless vision loss.
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Dry
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_______ age related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by rapid onset, and development of abnormal blood vessels in or near the macula.
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Wet
Which form of age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common?
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Dry
Which form of age related macular degeneration (AMD) is most likely to lead to functional blindness?
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Wet
What are risk factors for age related macular degeneration (AMD)?
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Family history, long-term exposure to UV light, smoking, hyperopia, and having light colored eyes.
What nutritional supplements were found to lower the development of advancing age related macular degeneration (AMD)?
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Vitamin C, E, beta carotene and Zinc
Studies have found that eating ________ may help reduce the risk of developing AMD.
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Dark, green leafy vegetables that contain lutein like kale and spinach
What is drusen?
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Yellowish colored extracellular deposits that form in the retinal pigment epithelium . They are the beginning of the dry form of age related macular degeneration (AMD).
The dry form of age related macular degeneration (AMD) begins with the development of _______ in the retinal pigment epithelium. _________ of macular cells then results.
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Drusen develops then atrophy/degeneration of macular cells results.
______ age related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by abnormal blood vessel growth in the retinal epithelium (usually they are in the choroids). The new vessels leak causing scar tissue to form.
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Wet
Blind spots in the visual field are referred to as...
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Scotomas
Metamorphopsia is the word for...
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Distortion of vision
  
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