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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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Metamorphopsia is the word for...
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Distortion of vision
A patient complains that her vision is blurry and dark and she's noticed some blind spots. She mentions that something she looks at stuff and it doesn't look right. You suspect this patient is beginning to develop...
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AMD (age related macular degeneration). Characterized by blurred vision, distorted vision, dark vision and blind spots
Scotomas and metamorphopsia are characteristic of what visual problem?
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Age related macular degeneration (AMD)
What is the primary diagnostic procedure for age related macular degeneration (AMD)?
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Using an ophthalmoscope to look for drusen and fundus changes associated with AMD.
What is the Amsler grid test and what is it used for?
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The Amsler grid test is a grid with a dot in the center of it. The patient with age related macular degeneration (AMD) stares at the dot and reports any changes in the lines like waving. It can be used to define the problem area to get a baseline for future comparison
Fundus photography and IV angiography with fluorescein dye and/or indocyanine green dyes is used to define the extent and type of _________.
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Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
What is the major drawback of using laser macular photocoagulation to treat macular degeneration?
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The laser beam destroys the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells where it is applied, leaving a blind spot.
________ is a therapy to treat wet AMD that involves using verteporfin (Visudyne) intravenously and a cold laser to excite the dye. The procedure destroys abnormal blood vessels without damaging the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells.
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT)
What are the major drawbacks of photodynamic therapy (PDT)?
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The dye used can be activated by exposure to sunlight or a high intensity lights like halogen, leading to thermal burns. The client must remain completely covered for 5 days post surgery to avoid this.
_________ is an intravenous injectable drug that is used to treat wet age related macular degeneration (AMD). It is a selective inhibitor of endothelial growth factor which slows vision loss.
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Pegaptanib (Macugen)
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What are the side effects of Pegaptanib (Macugen)?
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Blurred vision, eye irritation, eye pain and photosensitivity. Rare side effects include retinal detachment, infection and traumatic cataract.
__________ is a new type of biological therapy used to preserve vision in patients with wet age related macular degeneration (AMD). It is an injectable monthly treatment that blocks formation of new blood vessels and leakiness.
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Ranibizumab (Lucentis)
What are the side effects of Ranibizumab (Lucentis)?
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Conjunctival hemorrhage, eye pain, inflammation and floaters.
_________ is a group of disorders characterized by increased intraocular pressure and its consequences, optic nerve atrophy and peripheral visual field loss.
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Glaucoma
_________ is the second leading cause of blindness in the US, and the leading cause of blindness in African Americans.
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Glaucoma
T/F Blindness from glaucoma is preventable with early detection and treatment.
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TRUE
Primary ________ glaucoma represents the majority of glaucoma cases and is caused by decreased outflow (reabsorption) of aqueous humor in the trabecular meshwork.
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Open-angle glaucoma (essentially clogged drainage channels raise intraocular pressure). POAG
Primary ________ glaucoma is usually caused by the lens bulging forward as a result of an age-related process. It can occur from pupil dilation that causes the iris bulging that covers the trabecular network and blocks outflow. Emotional excitement, drug-induced mydriasis, or darkness can cause dilation long enough to increase intraocular pressure.
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Angle-closure (PACG)
In ______ glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure is caused by inflammation processes such as trauma or ocular neoplasms that block the outflow channels.
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Secondary
This type of glaucoma presents with no symptoms of pain or pressure. The client experiences gradual peripheral vision loss that results in tunnel vision if left untreated.
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Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
This type of glaucoma presents with no symptoms of pain or pressure. The client experiences gradual peripheral vision loss that results in tunnel vision if left untreated.
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Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)
  
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