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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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A ________ involves an incision of the tympanum to release increased pressure and exudate from the middle ear. A tympanostomy tube is put into place to facilitate further drainage.
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Myringotomy
What organisms are the most common causes of chronic otitis media?
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S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and proteus mirabilis
_________ is characterized by purulent exudate and inflammation that can involve the ossicles, eustachian tube and mastoid bone. Nausea, dizziness, hearing loss, facial palsy or vertigo may occur. It is often painless.
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Chronic otitis media
A ________ is a mass of epithelial cells and cholesterol that forms in the middle ear after the perforation of the tympanic membrane.
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Cholesteatoma
A __________ can enlarge and destroy adjacent bones, including the ossicles and can cause extensive damage to the middle ear by eroding the bony protection of the facial nerve, creating a labyrinthine fistula or it can threaten the brain by invading the dura.
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Cholesteatoma (formed after a tympanic membrane perforation)
How is a cholesteatoma treated?
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Surgical removal
What are the signs and symptoms of cerumen impaction?
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Hearing loss, otalgia, tinnitus, vertigo, cough or cardiac depression
Surgery performed to reconstruct the tympanic membrane or ossicular chain is called a ____________.
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Tympanoplasty
A _________ is often performed with a tympanoplasty to remove diseased tissue and the source of infection.
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Mastoidectomy
A ________ is surgical reconstruction limited to repair of a tympanic membrane perforation.
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Myringoplasty
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How are patients typically positioned after surgery for chronic otitis media?
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Flat and in the side-lying position with the affected ear up.
Monitoring of dressings placed on the ear after surgery is important for two reasons, they are...
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To prevent tissue necrosis from dressings that are too tight, and to monitor drainage
Otitis media with effusion means that there is an inflammation of the middle ear with a collection of fluid in the ________.
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Middle ear space
Serous otitis media or secretory otitis media are other names for ___________.
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Otitis media with effusion
What causes otitis media with effusion?
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Fluid usually collects because of a malfunction of the eustachian tube due to a respiratory infection and/or chronic sinus infection. Sometimes it is caused by barotrauma (pressure change) or is a complication of otitis media.
What are the signs/symptoms of otitis media with effusion?
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Feeling of fullness in the ear, a plugged sensation, popping, decreased hearing. Usually no pain, fever or discharge.
How is otitis media differentiated from otitis media with effusion?
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pneumatic otoscopy
How long can a client have otitis media with effusion?
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For weeks to months after an episode of otitis media
______ is an autosomal dominant disease involving the fixation of the footplate of the stapes in the oval window. Reduced transmission of the inner ear fluids leads to conductive hearing loss.
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Otosclerosis
__________ is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss in young adults, especially women.
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Otosclerosis
When is otosclerosis most likely to accelerate?
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During pregnancy
  
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