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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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_____________ is an inflammation of the inner ear affecting the vestibular and/or cochlear portion of the labyrinth.
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Labyrinthitis
How does the infection that causes labyrinthitis enter into the inner ear?
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It gets in from the meninges, middle ear or the blood stream
_________ is an abnormal, rhythmic, jerking movement of the eyes which is sometimes seen with Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis and CNS disorders.
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Nystagmus
What are the symptoms of labyrinthitis?
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Vertigo, tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss on the affected side.
Suppurative labyrinthitis has symptoms similar to a Meniere's attack, however, complete destruction of __________ can lead to permanent deafness and extreme unsteadiness.
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The vestibular and cochlear labyrinths
One of the patients on your floor has suppurative labyrinthitis. During rounds, the patient complains of a terrible headache and seems lethargic and sleepy. When you attempt to question him further he gets extremely agitated. You suspect the patient is suffering from the most common complication of labyrinthitis which is...
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Meningitis (characterized by nuchal rigidity/stiff neck, headache, agitation, extreme lethargy, and changes in level of consciousness)
A benign tumor that occurs where the acoustic nerve (CN VIII) enters the auditory canal or the temporal bone from the brain is called...
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An acoustic neuroma/vestibular schwannoma
What is one of the earliest symptoms of an acoustic neuroma?
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Decreased touch sensation in the posterior ear canal
What are signs and symptoms of an acoustic neuroma?
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Unilateral, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, mild, intermittent vertigo, and decreased touch sensation of the posterior ear canal
How is an acoustic neuroma diagnosed?
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Neurologic, audiometric, and vestibular tests, CT scans and MRI with gadolinium enhancement
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Small acoustic neuromas are removed using the ________ approach and hearing/vestibular function is preserved. Medium tumors are removed using the _________ approach, destroying hearing in that ear. Large tumors require the _________ approach.
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Small-retrolabyrinthine (through middle cranial fossa) Medium-translabyrinthine Large-retrosigmoid (suboccipital) or transotic
To slow the growth of an acoustic neuroma and preserve the facial nerve, surgeons may decide to do a __________________.
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Stereotactic radiosurgery
Impacted cerumen. foreign bodies, and external otitis are the most common causes of hearing loss of the _______ ear.
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External
Otitis media, serous otitis and otosclerosis are the most common cause of hearing losses in the ________ ear.
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Middle
Meniere's disease, noise exposure, presbycusis or ototoxicity are the most common causes of hearing losses in the ______ ear.
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Inner
_________ hearing loss occurs in the middle and outer ear and impairs sound being conducted from the outer ear to the inner ear. Bone conduction hearing is better than air conduction.
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Conductive hearing loss
________ hearing loss is caused by an impairment of function of the inner ear or vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII). It can be caused by aging, systemic diseases, autoimmune diseases, noise trauma and congenital or hereditary factors.
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Sensorineural
People with _____ hearing loss tend to speak softly because their voice sounds loud to them.
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Conductive
People with ________ hearing loss hear better in loud environments.
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Conductive
People with _______ hearing loss lose the ability to hear high-pitched sounds.
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Sensorineural (consonants are high pitched which makes understanding speech difficult)
Patients with ______ hearing loss are most likely to benefit from a hearing aid.
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Conductive
  
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