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Visual and Auditory ProblemsMedical-Surgical Nursing

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How is Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) treated?
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Ice packs, dark sunglasses, and in severe cases topical corticosteroids and topical antibiotic ointment
You have a client that has been diagnosed with EKC. You know that your most important role is to...
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Teach the patient and family members regarding good hygiene practices to avoid spreading the disease
What organisms are the most common causes of fungal keratitis?
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Aspergillus, Candida and Fusarium
Where is a client most likely to contract a fungal keratitis?
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In an outdoor setting (like skiing and getting smacked in the eye by a low-lying tree branch)
__________ keratitis is caused by a parasite that is associated with contact lens wear. Most likely it comes from contaminated solution or cases or from homemade saline solutions.
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Acanthamoeba
How is Acanthamoeba keratitis treated?
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The only drug approved by the FDA is natamycin/Natacyn. If this is ineffective, a corneal transplant may be required.
What type of keratitis is a patient with exophthalmos more likely to get?
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Exposure keratitis. It occurs when a patient is unable to fully close their eyelids.
Tissue loss caused by an infection of the cornea produces a _________.
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Corneal ulcer
What are the signs and symptoms of a corneal ulcer?
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It is very painful, tearing with purulent or watery discharge, foreign body sensation, redness and photophobia.
How is a corneal ulcer treated?
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Antibiotics, antivirals, or antifungal eye drops may be prescribed as frequently as every hour for 24 hours. Untreated ulcers can lead to a need for a transplant.
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What are the overall goals for a patient with inflammation or infection of the external eye?
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Avoid spread of infection, maintain an acceptable level of comfort and functioning during the course of the problem, maintain or improve visual acuity, comply with prescribed therapy and promote health seeking behaviors.
What are some interventions a nurse can employ while treating a patient with an inflammation/infection of the external eye?
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Apply warm or cool compresses as indicated by the condition, darken the room, provide analgesics or other comfort measures
If a client is prescribed two or more eye drops, how can the nurse provide for maximum absorption?
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Stagger the drops. If two drops are ordered hourly, administer one drop, wait a half hour and administer the other drop.
What should a nurse instruct a patient that wears contacts and has a current eye infection to do?
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Throw away all opened or used lens care products and cosmetics to decrease the risk of re-infection from contaminated products ( a common problem).
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a fancy name for the very common condition...
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Dry eyes
What conditions predispose a client to experience keratoconjunctivitis sicca?
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Being elderly, having scleroderma, lupus (SLE), or Sjögren's
How is keratoconjunctivitis sicca typically treated?
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If the underlying problem is a lacrimal duct dysfunction, hot compresses and lid massage helps. If the problem is due to decreased tear production, artificial tears or ointments are prescribed. In severe cases, closure of the lacrimal puncta is indicated.
If a patient complains of a dry mouth and dry eyes, what condition would you suspect?
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Sjögren's (an autoimmune condition which attacks the lacrimal and salivary glands leading to dry mouth and eyes).
_________ is a condition in which the patient cannot consistently focus two eyes simultaneously on the same object.
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Strabismus
Esotropia is when one eye deviates _____.
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In
Exotropia is when one eye deviates ______.
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Out
  
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