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Fluid and ElectrolytesMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What are common causes of hypervolemia?
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Excessive administration of IV fluids; hypersecretion of aldosterone; effects of drugs like cortisone.
Hypervolemia results in what organ failure?
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Kidney failure.
Skeletal muscle weakness, smooth muscle atony and cardiac dysrhythmias, constipation, intestinal distention, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and paralytic ileus are symptoms of _______.
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hypokalmia
Oliguria, tachycardia (and later bradycardia), weakness, numbness and tingling in the extremities are signs of _______.
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hyperkalemia
Hypoxemia, fever, anemia, thyrotoxicoses, hysteria, cirrhosis, and gram (-) sepsis can lead to _______.
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Respiratory alkalosis
The single most important factor in the regulation in serum calcium is _______.
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PTH
Calcium is the main contributor to...
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The threshold of an action potential. Increased Ca=increased action potential; Decreased Ca=decreased action potential.
Hypercalcemia causes action potentials to fire _______.
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more slowly
Solutions that have the same osmolality of blood plasma...
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Isotonic solution
What are the cardinal symptoms of SIADH?
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Signs and symptoms of water intoxication, hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, increased urine specific gravity, absence of conditions that alter volume status (congestive heart failure, hypovolemia, etc.).
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What are common causes of hypertonic fluid alterations?
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Hypernatremia (increased Na); decreased ECF water.
During metabolic or respiratory _______, potassium shifts from ECF to ICF.
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alkalosis. Exchanges with hydrogen to make blood pH more acidic. Form of hypokalemia.
Hyperkalemia and _______ often occur together.
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acidosis
Alkalosis is...
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an increased blood pH.
Hypokalemia results in _______.
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Alkalosis (decreased H in ECF, increased K+ in cell).
What happens to K+ when a patient is suffering from respiratory alkalosis?
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Extracellular fluid potassium (ECF) exchanges with ICF Hydrogen in an attempt to correct alkalosis by decreasing the pH of ECF.
Edema represents an increase in _______ fluid.
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interstitial
What is the normal level of serum calcium?
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8.5 - 10.2
_______ maintains the resting membrane potential, reflected in transmission and conduction of nerve impulses, maintenance of cardiac rhythms and skeletal and smooth muscle contraction.
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Potassium
Decreased plasma osmolality, increased intravascular volume, hypertension and alcohol ingestion all cause _______ ADH.
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decreased
What are common causes of respiratory induced acidosis?
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Anything that makes it difficult for CO2 to escape, hypoventilation, drug overdose, lung disease, neuromuscular problems.
  
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