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Fluid and ElectrolytesMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Question Answer
ECF is controlled by...
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the serum sodium concentration.
What are the signs and symptoms of hypokalemia?
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Slowing down symptoms, shallow respirations, irritability, confusion, weakness, arrhythmias.
What are causes of hypernatremia?
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Diabetes, tumor, pituitary trauma, surgical mishap, water deficit, dehydration.
What are signs and symptoms of water excess?
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Confusion, convulsions, weakness, nausea, muscle twitching, headache, weight gain.
What causes metabolic alkalosis?
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Over-NG suction; vomiting
How is hyperkalemia treated?
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Restricting potassium foods, sodium bicarbonate, 10% calcium gluconate, insulin and glucose, Kayexalate (oral: 10-20g, 3-4 xs) (rectal: 30-50g).
_______ is required for glycogen and glucose deposition in liver and skeletal muscle cells.
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Potassium
Increase in ECF sodium causes symptoms of _______, decrease in water in ECF causes _______.
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Hypervolemia caused by increase in sodium; hypertonic caused by H20 loss.
An increase or decrease in carbonic acid or bicarbonate releases H ions...
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Buffering System
The neurological manifestations of hyponatremia are related to...
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swelling of neurons.
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What are signs and symptoms of Hyperkalemia?
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Muscle cramping, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, kidney damage, oliguria (scant urine output), peaked T wave, long QRS wave.
What are the clinical manifestations of hypernatremia?
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Thirst, fever, dry mucous membranes, restlessness, muscle twitching, hyperreflexia, convulsions, flush, and rough/dry tongue.
What are 4 physiological changes that favor edema?
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Increased capillary pressure; lowered plasma oncotic pressure; increased capillary membrane permeability; lymphatic channel obstruction.
How is hypocalcemia treated?
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Oral or IV; IV mixed with D5W (not saline); Oral combined with salts like chloride, carbonate, etc.
What is the disease process of hypokalemia?
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Decreased H ions causes K+ to accumulate in the cells. Decreased resting membrane potential which makes it harder for an action potential to take place. Slowing down symptoms: shallow resp., irritability, confusion, weakness, arrhythmia.
What are causes of hypokalemia?
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Decreased intake; diarrhea; GI suction (SXN); loop diuretic (lasix/HCT3); alkalosis.
What are signs and symptoms of hypernatremia?
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Hyperreflexia; tremor; convulsions.
What causes water movement between the intracellular and extracellular compartments?
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Changes in sodium (ECF) and changes in potassium (ICF).
What are signs and symptoms of hypovolemia?
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Thirst, dry skin and mucous membranes, increased temperature, weight loss, concentrated urine, tachycardia, weak pulses and postural hypotension.
_______ is a common result of hypernatremia.
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Hyperosmolality
What are the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia?
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Hypotension, tachycardia, decreased urine output, weight gain, edema, ascites and jugular vein distention, lethargy, confusion, apprehension, depressed refluxes, seizure, coma.
  
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