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Fluid and ElectrolytesMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What are the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia?
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Hypotension, tachycardia, decreased urine output, weight gain, edema, ascites and jugular vein distention, lethargy, confusion, apprehension, depressed refluxes, seizure, coma.
What are 3 mechanisms the body uses to control acid/base balance of the blood?
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Buffering, proteins, renal and respiratory compensation.
ECV is...
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Effective Circulating Volume. The volume of fluid that circulates effectively enough to get oxygen to body organs.
Headache, blurred vision, breathlessness, restlessness, apprehension, lethargy, muscle twitching, tremors, convulsions and coma can occur...
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Respiratory acidosis
Which body mechanism to control acid/base balance is the fastest?
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Buffering
Metabolic acidosis is caused by...
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Diabetes; anything that causes lactic acid build up (occurs during anaerobic metabolism like extreme exercise); ischemia (shock); muscle break down; muscle injury; renal failure; aspirin OD; diarrhea.
What blood test can be used to determine hydration status?
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Hemoglobin
What are causes of hyperkalemia?
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Increased intake, renal failure, K+ sparing diuretics, trauma, burns.
What are some causes of decreased intravascular oncotic pressure?
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Decreased proteins due to malnutrition, movement of proteins to interstitium (inflammatory response), increased hydrostatic pressure (increased bp).
_______ is needed to maintain membrane integrity and the speed of metabolic enzyme reactions.
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Hydrogen ions
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What are signs and symptoms of hyponatremia in the 140-130 range?
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Changes in taste, anorexia, changes in levels of consciousness, lethargy, apprehension. Normal is 135-145
What are the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia in the 130-120 range?
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Vomiting and abdominal cramping; hyporeflexia (normal is 135-145)
Hypoventilation results in _______ and is usually a compensation for _______.
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hypercapnea; metabolic alkalosis (retain CO2)
What is Hypokalemia?
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Decreased K+ (potassium)
A patient with metabolic acidosis will compensate by...
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Increasing respiration; blow off CO2 ; Kussmaul respirations, deep and fast.
Uncontrolled diabetes and severe exercise can cause what acid base imbalance?
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Metabolic acidosis
PItting edema occurs when...
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The amount of interstitial fluid exceeds the absorptive capacity of the tissue gel.
Normal urine specific gravity is _______ to _______.
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1.005 to 1.030
The respiratory system compensates for changes in pH by increasing or decreasing carbon dioxide by _______.
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Changing ventilation. Hyperventilation=decreased CO2 (more basic) and Hypoventilation=increased CO2 (more acidic)
Fluid located outside the cell membrane, intravascular and interstitial...
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Extracellular ECF
Weight gain, decreased hematocrit and decreased plasma protein levels, distended neck veins and increased bp, increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, edema and ultimately pulmonary edema and heart failure result from...
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hypervolemia
  
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