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Fluid and ElectrolytesMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What is the major ion of the intracellular fluid?
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Potassium (K+)
What is the main ion that controls ECF movement?
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Sodium (Na)
Restlessness, intestinal cramping, diarrhea, anxiety, tingling, oliguria, and bradycardia are signs of _______.
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hyperkalemia
Indicators of _______ include rapid heart beat, flattened neck veins and normal or decreased bp. In severe states, shock can occur.
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hypovolemia
Hypocalcemia _______ the release of PTH.
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increases
Tingling, muscle spasms (in hands, feet, face), GI cramping, hyperactive bowel sounds, convulsions and tetany can be caused by...
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hypocalcemia
How is hypokalemia treated?
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Orally or IV, combined with an ion like chloride or bicarbonate; dilute IV; give oral with full glass of liquid.
Describe the renin-angiotensin system:
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Renin, secreted from the renal cells. Angiotensin I (weak vasoconstrictor). Angiotensin II (potent vasoconstrictor). Release of aldosterone (adrenal glands). Na+ and H2O retention. Increased bp.
What is essential to measure before a K+ containing intravenous infusion is started on a traumatized patient?
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urine output (if kidneys aren't working the K+ is retained).
The renin-angiotensin system is activated by sodium and water _______, _______ potassium and _______ blood volume.
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depletion; increased; decreased
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Poor intestinal absorption, deposition of ionized calcium into bone or soft tissue, blood admin., decreased PTH and nutritional deficiencies can cause...
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hypocalcemia
Fatigue, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, nausea, constipation, impaired renal function, kidney stones, dysrhythmias, bradycardia, cardiac arrest and bone pain are symptoms of...
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hypercalcemia
45% NS
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Hypotonic Solution
Adding an isotonic solution via IV results in what type of movement between solutes?
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Results in added volume, but no movement of solutes.
Water moves between ICF and ECF compartments primarily via _______.
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osmosis
_______ is responsible for the ECF osmotic balance.
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Sodium
The distributions of water and the movement of nutrients and waste products between the capillary and interstitial spaces occur as a result of changes in ______ pressure and _______ pressure.
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hydrostatic (pushes out); oncotic (pushes in)
Infants are susceptible to significant changes in TBW because...
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they have a high metabolic rate; greater body surface area.
BP cuff inflated to 20mm, causing a muscle spasm response.
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Trousseau's sign
What are the normal levels of HCO3 in blood? (Bicarbonate)
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22-26
What type of IV solutions can cause hypernatremia?
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Hypertonic Solutions
  
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