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Fluid and ElectrolytesMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Hyperkalemia results in _______.
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acidosis; increased H in ECF causing K+ to leave cells = decreased pH.
In _______, noncarbonic acids increases or bicarbonate is lost from ECF.
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metabolic acidosis
What are signs and symptoms of hyponatremia when levels are 120 and below?
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Severe neurologic damage, convulsions, and death. Normal is 135-145.
How is hyponatremia treated?
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.9% NS
Hyperventilating to retain CO2 to compensate for metabolic acidosis is called...
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Kussmaul Respiration (deep and rapid).
Sodium is the _______ cation.
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ECF
_______ are the largest plasma protein and function as carriers. In addition, they control the plasma _______ pressure.
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Albumins; oncotic pressure
Why are babies and small children more prone to dehydration?
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Renal mechanisms may not be mature enough to counter abnormal losses related to vomiting and diarrhea.
Serum sodium levels should always be evaluated in relation to...
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Serum osmolality and body water levels.
_______ maintains the ICF osmotic balance.
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Potassium
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What are the normal levels of CO2 (carbon dioxide) in blood?
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35-45
Drugs, a head injury, asthma, respiratory muscle paralysis, broken ribs, pulmonary edema, emphysema and bronchitis can all cause...
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Respiratory Acidosis
What organ compensates for a respiratory acidosis problem?
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Kidney
Increased HCO3 (bicarbonate) makes blood pH more _______.
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basic
Decreased Ca causes a decreased action potential threshold. This makes it easier or harder for an action potential to fire?
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Easier
The amount of fluid within blood vessels, circulating volume of blood that perfuses the organs...
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IVF (ECF sub compartment)
Blood is _______% water, _______% solutes. There are _______qts. in the body.
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90% water; 10% solutes; 6 quarts
Sodium below 135 is called...
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Hyponatremia
Nausea, vomiting, dysrhythmias, abdominal distention and soft, flabby muscles are signs of _______.
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hypokalemia
Water balance is regulated by ______; sodium is regulated by _______.
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H20 is regulated by ADH; Na+ is regulated by the renal effects of aldosterone.
Cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion and ascites are examples of _______ edema.
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localized
  
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