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Fluid and ElectrolytesMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion and ascites are examples of _______ edema.
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localized
The overall function of the kidneys is to...
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regulate the composition of extracellular fluid.
What are common causes of disorders of the Hypothalmic and Pituitary system?
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Head trauma; surgery; iatrogenic (surgical cause); and tumors.
Increased Ca causes an increase action potential threshold. This makes it easier or harder for an action potential to fire?
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Harder
Hypernatremia occurs when serum _______ levels exceed _______mEq/L.
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sodium; 147
The number of solutes in fluid outside of the body...
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Tonicity
The _______ is the most efficient regulator of Potassium balance.
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kidney
_______ is a sign of hyponatremia.
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Tetany
Edema is rated _______ to _______.
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1+ (least severe) to 4+ (most severe)
Sodium above 145 is called...
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Hypernatremia
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Weakness, lethargy, fatigue, hyporeflexia, kidney stones and possible decreased bone mass/density are signs of...
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Hypercalcemia
Headache, convulsion, increased excitability, tingling, Trousseau's sign and Chvostek's sign are symptoms of...
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Hypocalcemia
Aldosterone _______ the reabsorption of sodium and the _______ of potassium by the distal tubule of the kidney.
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increases the reabsorption of sodium; increases secretion (excretion) of potassium
The _______ take 20 _______ to compensate for respiratory problems.
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kidneys; 20 hours
What is the function of the parathyroid gland?
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Regulates calcium levels in the blood and bone.
How quickly can the lungs compensate for a metabolic problem?
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2-4 hours via hypoventilation
T wave is flat or inverted; ST segment is depressed; and QT interval prolonged.
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hypokalemia
Number of solutes in fluid inside the body...
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Osmolality
.9% NS
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Isotonic Solution
Decreased urine output, overhydration (from IV fluids) are causes of...
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hypervolemia
What are common causes of hypervolemia?
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Excessive administration of IV fluids; hypersecretion of aldosterone; effects of drugs like cortisone.
  
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