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Hematology and CellsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Platelet levels are maintained by _______ and _______.
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thrombopoietin; IL-II
What are the typical causes of pernicious anemia?
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Congenital, adult onset gastric mucosal atrophy, alcoholism, chronic gastritis, ulcers, gastric bypass surgery.
What are the three steps to determining the cause of irregular blood gas values?
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1. Is it acidosis (less than 7.45) or alkalosis (more than 7.45). 2. Is it increased acid (CO2 = resp. problems) or decreased base (HCO3 = metabolic). 3. Compensated? (pH = normal) non compensated? (pH higher or lower)
What is the function of hemoglobin?
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Responsible for picking up O2 from the lungs and carrying it to tissues.
Globulins are the _______ of hemoglobin. Hemes are the part that _______.
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Globulins = structure; hemes = carries gases
What are the macrocytic anemias?
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Pernicious anemia, Folate deficiency anemia (B deficiencies)
Tachycardia, tachypnea, dizziness, pale skin, lips and nail beds, jaundice and early graying/loss of hair are symptoms of...
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anemia (more progressed)
What disorder is the MCHC useful in detecting?
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Leukemia; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
What is the MCH used to detect?
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Increase in hemoglobin weight; Mean Corpscular Hemoglobin
Erythroblasts are _______ than RBCs.
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larger
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What event stimulates the release of erythropoietin?
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Hypoxia; can be triggered by smoking, higher altitudes.
Vitamin K is needed for synthesis of prothrombin factors _______ and proteins _______.
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Factors: 2,7,9,& 10; Proteins: C & S
Bleeding from venipuncture sites, arterial lines, eyes, open wounds and internal organs, symmetric cyanosis and hematomas are signs of _______.
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DIC
What advice would you give a patient with peripheral vascular disease?
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Always wear shoes and they should inspect their feet every night.
_______ secreted by the kidneys, converts yellow bone marrow to red, allowing for more RBC to be produced.
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Erythropoietin
People with sickle cell have increased _______. They also have decreased _______ levels.
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Increased blood viscosity; decreased O2
Siderblastic anemia has _______ serum iron and _______ RBC's.
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Increased serum iron; dimorphic
What are the 3 stages of iron anemia?
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1. Depletion of iron stores (ferrin level would be low). 2. Depleted iron in bone marrow. 3. Deficient RBC in circulation (usually diagnosed at this point).
In IDA, what would you expect to see on the RDW and TIBC?
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RDW: early you would see increase, late you would see decrease. TIBC: increase.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is almost always the result of _______.
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Sepsis; result from severe endothelial damage.
All hemophilias have _______, _______, and _______ and an increased _______.
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Bruising; Purpura; Petchiae; increased PT time
  
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