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Hematology and CellsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Page 15
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What is the normal platelet count?
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150,000-4000,000
Petechiae, purpura, mucosal bleeding, gingival bleeding and bruising are sign of _______.
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alterations in platelet function
What is secondary polycythemia and what causes it?
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Increased erythropoietin in response to chronic hypoxia. Smoking, increased altitudes, lung disease, injections. *risk of clotting
What are common causes of disorders of platelets?
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Congenital (rare), auto immune type II reaction: haptens, viruses (EBV, rubella, CMV, HIV), nutritional deficiencies, drugs (heparin), aplastic anemia.
How are myeloproliferative RBC's detected?
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Hemoglobin is elevated.
What is polycythemia vera and how is it treated?
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Congenital/overproduction of RBC: increased risk of clotting, intense itching when exposed to heat, Raynaud's. Treated with aspirin or taking blood.
What 5 things are involved in Hemostasis?
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Platelets, clotting factor, blood flow, endothelial cells, fibrinolysis.
What are the 4 general causes of anemia?
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Impaired production, loss of blood, increased destruction, any combo of above.
What is the iron cycle?
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Spleen breaks hemoglobin into globulin and heme. Heme and globulin broken down into iron and bilirubin. Transferrin picks up iron and transports it to bone marrow or to liver for storage. Bone marrow releases erythrocytes. Aged erythrocytes go to sple
Describe the pathophysiology of DIC...
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Endothelial damaged; thrombin activated in large amounts; widespread microscopic clotting; clotting factor consumed; bleeding/hemorrhage; widespread ischemia, organ hypoperfusion, infarction.
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What is considered an alteration of platelet function?
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The quantity is normal, but the quality is poor. Increased bleeding time (like hemophilia).
Hematocrit is an indirect measurement of RBC's. The average for men is _______% and for women is _______%.
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men: 42-52%; women: 37-47%
What is the normal RBC count for men?
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4.7 - 6.1 (millions per um)
What are normal Hb levels for men? For women?
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Men: 14-18 g/dL; Women: 12-16 g/dL
What are normal hemoglobin levels?
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15-Dec
_______ reflects the size of RBC's.
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Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); ends in cytic: microcytic/marcrocytic
What is the core problem in anemias and what are the classic symptoms?
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Core problem is reduced O2 carrying capacity. Fatigue, weakness, pallor, dyspnea.
Bleeding or depressed RBC production causes...
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Anemia
_______ increase inflammation, whereas exercise and _______ decrease inflammation.
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Free radicals = inflammation; exercise and antioxidants decrease free radicals, therefore decrease inflammation.
...related to decreased neutrophil and lymphocyte counts and reduced immunologic function...
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Infection
  
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