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Hematology and CellsMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What 2 mediators are produced by the mast cell?
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Leukotrienes: Involved in chronic inflammation, slower, longer response than histamines. Prostaglandins: Induce pain, and same response as histamines. Inhibits eosinophils.
How is the lectin pathway of complement activated? What proteins are galvanized?
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By bacterial carbohydrates. MBL (mannose-binding lectin) - C3 - C5.
The Kinin system and clotting system are activated by factor _______ and the end product of the Kinen system is _______.
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XII (pre kallikrein); Bradykinin
Which Type I mediator? Platelet aggregation and heparin releases microthrombi
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PAF
What is the hallmark clinical presentation of someone who has an immunodeficiency?
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The tendency to develop recurrent or unusual infections.
What Stage in HIV life cycle? Viral DNA is combined with the cell's DNA thru enzymatic action...
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Integration (4)
What Stage in HIV life cycle? Single strands of viral RNA are converted into double-stranded DNA utilizing the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
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Reverse Transcription (3)
What are 4 common manifestions of AIDS?
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cachexia (muscle wasting), Karposi sarcoma, genital herpes, diarrhea and dementia.
What Stage in HIV life cycle? Immature virus pushes out of the cell, taking cell membrane with it. Protease starts processing the proteins in the newly forming virus.
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Budding (7)
The viral load of HIV is highest during the _______ and _______ stages of the disease.
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very early (1st two weeks) and late stages
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What is the window period with respect to HIV?
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Antibodies show increase to HIV around 6 months to a year after infection.
Early, Middle or Late Stage of HIV? CD4 count goes below 200 and stays there. Susceptible to lymphoma and Karposi's sarcoma.
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Late phase = AIDS
Early, Middle or Late Stage of HIV? Lasts for months to years. Few symptoms. Blood contains decreased virus levels, antibodies are present. Continuous infection, death and replacement of CD4 T cells.
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Middle
Early, Middle or Late Stage of HIV? Lasts 2 weeks, flu-like symptoms. High levels of the virus appear in the blood, most likely to be transmitted during this stage.
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Early
Which subclass of HIV I has the most subtypes with varying levels of virulence?
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M
Which form of HIV is the most common in the US?
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HIV I
What stage in HIV lifeycle? Sets of viral proteins come together.
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Assembly (6)
What stage in HIV lifecycle? Virus penetrates cell and empties contents.
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Infection (2)
What is seroconversion?
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The point at which antibodies to a virus have developed.
What are the 8 steps in the HIV lifecycle?
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1. Budding and Fusion. 2. Infection/ Penetration. 3. Reverse Transcription. 4. Integration. 5. Transcription. 6. Assembly. 7. Budding. 8. Maturation.
What stage in HIV lifecycle? Protease cuts HIV protein chains into individual proteins that combine to make a new virus.
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Maturation (8)
  
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