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Muscle and SkeletalMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What are the stages of Rheumatoid arthritis?
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Stage 1: inflammation, swelling of synovial membrane lining. Leads to red, hot joints. Stage 2: pannus formation leads to joint capsule. Stage 3: fibrous tissue replaces pannus, occludes joint space which leads to decreased joint mobility and deformity
Describe the pathology of AS...
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Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) Inflammation of fibrocartilage/vertebrae leads to erosion of the joint which leads to secretion with calcification and ossification and joint fuses.
What are signs and symptoms of Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)?
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Low back pain, stiffness, decreased ROM, stooping posture from neck up, rigid, straight spine (no S), and no Lordosis.
What are primary sites of osteosarcoma?
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Located in places of rapid bone growth. Proximal tibia, distal femur, and proximal humerus.
How does RA differ from Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)?
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RA has inflammation of the synovial membrane. AS has inflammation of fibrocartilage (vertebrae/sacroiliac).
In ankylosing spondylitis _______ and _______ of the spine and sacroiliac joints leads to deformities.
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fibrosis and fusion
Ankylosing Spondylitis has _______ effects.
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systemic
What can trigger gout?
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Trauma, alcohol use, and thiazide diuretics like HCTZ.
What are risk factors for gout?
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Male, overweight, increased alcohol, increased purine diet, thiazide diuretics.
What are complications of Duchenne's...
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Comprised pulmonary function, kyphoscoliosis, cardiac involvement, and mental retardation.
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What are the 3 main types of scoliosis?
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Idiopathic, congenital, and teratogenic (CP).
A muscle _______ can range from pain of an overstretched muscle to full tearing of a muscle accompanied by bleeding.
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muscle strain
A _______ usually occurs with a long bone or pelvic fracture. The outcome can be a PE.
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fat emboli
Most scoliosis patients have a side to side curve of the spine that are...
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apex R. thorax
A patient's arm has been casted. What education do they need prior to discharge?
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Need to know how to check capillary refill. Go to ER if: unrelenting pain or cannot slide 2 fingers between skin and cast.
_______ can cause artificial compartment syndrome.
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Casts
How do children get osteomyelitis?
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Pathogens from an existing infection travel via the blood to the bone.
Bone cancer originates more in _______.
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adolescence
Osteomyelitis in adults is usually caused by an _______ source.
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exogenous (usually result of penetrating injury that exposes bone to outside air)
In compression syndrome, the area is worse with _______, very _______ and not relieved by _______.
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worse with elevation, very painful, and not relieved by meds
What causes compartment syndrome with a fracture?
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The tissue swells but the muscle and fascia don't. Compression of veins, arteries and nerves. Decreased blood flow. Medical emergency.
  
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