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Muscle and SkeletalMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What causes compartment syndrome with a fracture?
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The tissue swells but the muscle and fascia don't. Compression of veins, arteries and nerves. Decreased blood flow. Medical emergency.
Osteoporosis increases the risks of...
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pneumonia, emboli and brittle bones.
What is the pathology of osteoporosis?
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Decreased osteoblast activity resulting in interruption of bone remodeling (decreased resorption and decreased bone formation). Increased osteoclast activity. Results in decreased bone density; cortical and trabecular bone is more progressively porous.
Ankylosing Spondylitis affects mostly the _______ and _______ joints.
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spine and sacroiliac
It is important for young girls to have _______ and _______ to ensure a lifetime of good bone health.
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activity and eat well (creates increased bone density)
Type of arthritis that affects mostly the spine and sacroiliac joints...
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Ankylosing Spondylitis
After the age of _______, bones will not get harder or denser.
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19-24
Fixed tightening of muscles, tendons, ligaments or skin...
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Contracture
_______ prevent normal movement of impacted body part and can cause permanent deformity.
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Contractures
What medications increases the risk of osteoporosis and why?
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Corticosteroids and anticonvulsants (long term use). They decrease vitamin D absorption, decrease Calcium absorption.
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Who is more likely to get osteoporosis?
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Caucasian women who are thin.
Gout occurs due to poor _______ or because of intake of _______.
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Poor metabolism of uric acid or increased intake of purines
Which form of JRA has the worst prognosis?
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Stills Disease/Systemic RA
What are risk factors for osteoporosis?
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History of anorexia, female, family history, smoking, alcohol, decreased lifetime intake of Calcium, meds: corticosteroids and anticonvulsants, history of amenorrhea, Caucasian Asian, N. European, vitamin D deficiency, and early onset menopause.
How is osteosarcoma diagnosed in children?
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x-ray
Why is osteomyelitis difficult to treat?
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There are very small capillaries in bone that are too small for the immunoglobulins to get in. Inflammation causes mini-blood clots, cutting off blood flow. Infection increases osteoclast activity. When infection is gone, Osteoblasts cannot get in and
A fracture that is angled and incomplete...
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oblique
How are osteosarcomas treated?
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Surgery; amputation and radiation. Not responsive to chemo.
What causes joint deformity in RA?
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Scar tissue forms which blocks articulation of the joint.
What is the pathology of osteosarcoma?
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Bone producing mesenchymal cells mutate which leads to overproliferation of osteoid (soft) cells. A bulky tumor then expands beyond bone and invades the soft tissue, blood and may metastasize to lungs.
What is ankylosis?
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Stiffness or immobilization of a joint caused by bones fusing as a result of disease or injury.
  
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