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Muscle and SkeletalMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What is ankylosis?
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Stiffness or immobilization of a joint caused by bones fusing as a result of disease or injury.
What are signs and symptoms of a fracture?
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Unnatural alignment/deformity, swelling, muscle spasm (tense muscle), tenderness, pain, impaired blood flow, impaired sensation, and decreased mobility.
Where do bone tumors generally arise from?
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bone cells, cartilage, collagen cells, fibrous tissue, marrow, vascular tissues.
Kyphosis is caused by decreased density of the _______ of the _______.
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decreased density of the spongy bone of the vertebra
The decrease in density of the spongy bone in the vertebra causes compression and _______. This results in the loss of height.
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Kyphosis
What are the diagnostic criteria for RA?
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Presence of 4 or more: morning stiffness over an hour, arthritis of 3 or more joints, arthritis of hand, RA nodules over extensor surfaces or bony prominence, RF or CCP (+), radiographic changes.
What is the pathology of Legg-Calve'-Perth?
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The blood supply to the neck of the proximal femoral epiphysis isn't present/decreased vascularization which can lead to severe degenerative arthritis.
Who is the most likely to be diagnosed with Legg-Calve'-Perth?
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Children aged 3-10,peaks at 6; (+) family history
What is the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
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Antigen-antibody complexes deposit themselves into the synovial membrane of the joint. Neutrophils attracted to the area, their lytic enzymes destroy the tissue.
Osteomyelitis can lead to _______ and _______.
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sepsis; continued bone loss and decreased strength
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What are the risk factors for osteoarthritis?
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In women age 40 and up; in men aged 55-60; history of exceptional stress on joints (runners, manual labor, mining); overweight; often occurs in weight-bearing joints and shoulders;(-) ANA.
What increases the risk of osteomalacia?
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Living someplace with decreased sunlight; having gut surgery; medications to treat seizures; and Chron's disease.
How is osteoporosis treated?
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Biphosphomates like Fosamax, Boniva and Actonel. Estrogen therapy should never be given solely to treat osteoporosis.
Osteosarcoma tumors are _______ tumors.
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aggressive, rapidly growing
Osteoarthritis is characterized by....
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erosion of articular cartilage; formation of osteophytes that alter bony contours and enlarge the joint; asymmetrical joint pain; (-) ANA; worse in morning, lasts about 30 min.; swelling; tenderness; limited ROM; deformities.
A muscle strain involves local muscle damage, and may involve damage to a _______ as well.
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tendon
What is myoglobinuria/ Rhabdomyolysis?
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Complication of severe muscle trauma. Excess of myoglobin in the urine from muscle tissue death which leads to acute tubular necrosis. ATN (intrarenal failure) leads to RF.
Normal bone density=______ Osteopenia=_______ Osteoporosis=_______
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Normal bone density=833 mg/cm2 or over; Osteopenia= 832-648 mg/cm2; Osteoporosis=648 mg/cm2 or less.
What are signs and symptoms of osteosarcoma?
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A break in a bone that is caused by something that wouldn't normally break a bone; slight deformity (like a shoulder appearing slightly bigger); pain (late); and swelling, warmth, redness.
Osteochondroses is characterized by loss of _______ to the bone, leading to _______, further leading to progressive bone weakness and _______.
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Decrease of blood supply; osseous necrosis (bone death); microfracture
What causes joint deformity in dislocation injuries?
Show Answer
Caused by muscle contraction that exerts a pull on the joint. Will be very tight because the muscles are very irritated so they contract.
  
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