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Muscle and SkeletalMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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What causes joint deformity in dislocation injuries?
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Caused by muscle contraction that exerts a pull on the joint. Will be very tight because the muscles are very irritated so they contract.
Loss of articulation of the bone ends in the joint capsule...
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Dislocation
In some cases, a strain or sprain may require surgery. How are those identified?
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An MRI will identify the exact cause of pain.
What are signs and symptoms of scoliosis?
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Uneven/high shoulders, iliac crest; protruding scapula; rib hump.
Tear or rupture of the ligament...
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Sprain.
What is the pathology of Osgood-Schlatter disease?
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A pull in the anterior patellar tendon leads to stress on the periosteum which leads to necrosis in severe cases (usually just pain, self limiting).
Where does an impacted fracture most commonly occur?
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In the vertebra.
What are Bouchard's nodes and what disease are they associated with?
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Nodules at the proximal interpharyngeal joints; osteoarthritis.
What are factors that impact fracture healing?
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Type and severity of injury; amount of bone loss (age, osteoporosis); degree of bridge formation that develops during healing; degree of immobilization (do they stay off of it?); infection?; malignancy?; necrosis? medications?
What are some general causes of bone necrosis?
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Infection; malignancy.
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Tophaceous gout increases uric acid deposits in _______ and results in permanent deformity.
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cartilage; tendons; soft tissue
A delayed union is a fracture that takes longer than _______ to heal.
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8-9 months
How is acute gouty arthritis treated?
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NSAIDS; allupurinol (decreased uric acid); colchacine: take until diarrhea.
How is RA different from JRA?
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RA: adults, small joints to large joints, permanent, RF +. JRA: children, large joints, can grow out of, RF + or RF-.
What is the underlying problem in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?
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Abnormal dystrophin levels causes muscle fibers to be injured very easily. As it becomes injured and necrotic, connective tissue replaces it as well as fat.
Legg-Calve'-Perth results in children that need to...
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wear a brace and prevent trauma to necrotic bone, normally have a deformity. Self-limiting disease.
Boutonniere, Hallux-Vagus and Swan neck deformities are associated with...
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RA
What are signs and symptoms of Duchenne's?
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Slow motor development/regression of motor tasks, frequent falling, waddling gait, loss of deep tendon reflexes, contractures, muscle wasting, bellies stick out, and arms fall back.
What are the 3 stages of gout?
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Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: no pain. Acute gouty arthritis: sudden increase in uric acid with hot, inflamed, red joint. Tophaceous gout: occurs between 3-40 years after initial attack. Increased uric acid deposits in tendons, cartilage, and soft tissues
What is the most likely cause of a femur fracture?
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Side impact MVA.
Duchenne's is present at birth, but isn't usually diagnosed until an age of _______.
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