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Muscle and SkeletalMedical-Surgical Nursing-7th edition

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Page 8
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What are some pathological causes of bone fractures?
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Hyperparathyroidism; osteoporosis; bone cancer.
What causes clubfoot?
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Chromosomal abnormalities or idiopathic.
Rheumatoid arthritis has a _______ ANA.
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positive (autoimmune)
What is an abnormal oculovestibular reflex/caloric test?
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Dysconjugate or asymmetrical eye movements toward stimulus.
What is the Grower's sign?
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When a child gets up off the floor, the child uses their hands to brace themselves up incrementally to stand erect. Associated with Duchenne's.
Osteoarthritis has a _______ ANA.
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negative (not autoimmune)
_______ is characterized by inflammation and loss of function of 1 or more connecting or supporting structures of the body.
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Rheumatic diseases
How is clubfoot treated?
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Casting, manipulation or surgery.
Imperfect development of the hip; no contact between femoral head and acetabulum...
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Developmental Dysplasia of the hip (DDH). 3 types: dislocated, subluxated and acetabular dysplasia.
What is osteoporosis?
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A complex, multifactorial chronic disease. Old bone is reabsorbed faster than new bone is being made which leads to easily fractured bone.
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How is RA treated? How do they work?
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With immune modulators like tumor and Enbrel. The modulate T cells and Humor necrosis factor, decrease autoimmune attack.
What is the pathology of muscular dystrophy?
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The muscle becomes necrotic and fat and connective tissue replaces the muscle fibers which leads to weak muscles.
Duchenne Muscular dystrophy is a/an _______ and therefore only _______ get it.
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x-linked recessive; only boys get it (transmitted from mom to son)
Muscular dystrophy is a disease of muscle tissue and not the _______ system.
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neurological
Tendonitis of the anterior patellar tendon...
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Osgood-Schlatter disease
Only 25% of people with Duchenne's live to age _______, the rest die before then...
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21
In Duchenne's the muscles of the _______ and _______ are affected first.
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hip; shoulders
What causes gout?
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Generally a genetic disorder.
What is gout?
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An inflammation condition that occurs as a result of hyperuricemia.
Ewing's sarcoma is responsive to _______ treatments.
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radiation, surgery, chemo (usually caught too late to treat well)
How do you check for blood flow in an area where a break is suspected?
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Check for a pulse, check for warmth, and check capillary refill time (white to pink).
  
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